21 1 月 2006 at 12:04 下午 #3286
在過去幾天與網站發生一些麻煩之後，遲到了[喜鵲知更鳥，2006 年初在香港檢測出 H5N1 陽性的第一隻鳥]，但是，來自香港政府，2006 年 1 月 19 日：引用：漁農自然照護署（漁護署）發言人今天（1月19日）表示，大埔金山村發現一隻死亡的東方鵲鴝，經一系列化驗測試後，證實其呈H5N1病毒陽性。
經民眾轉介，漁護署職員於 1 月 10 日將這隻雀鳥收集。
此外，在人工飼養和進口鳥類中也很常見（例如從新加坡 - 更擅長戰鬥[！]）。
香港當局現在正在查看是否可以在發現知更鳥的地方附近的家禽養殖場中發現更多的 H5N1, Inc。
貼文編輯：馬丁，發表於：2006/02/04 09:311 2 月 2006 at 6:52 下午 #4022
考慮到它們的行為，以及事實上這些村莊相距幾公里，它們不太可能在野外接觸過；奇怪的是，今年冬天香港尚未發現其他帶有 H5N1 病毒的物種。
第 1 隻雞的結果顯示 H5N1 與中國大陸家禽的流行毒株相關。1 2 月 2006 at 10:05 下午 #4023
剛剛在路透社上看到（！ - 今天沒有觀看或收聽當地新聞的節目）：引用：香港（路透社） - 香港政府週三表示，兩隻死鳥——一隻野生八哥和一隻從中國大陸走私的家雞——檢測出致命的 H5N1 禽流感病毒呈陽性。 ……雞和八哥的死鳥數量增加了一倍香港政府在過去兩週的檢測顯示感染了H5N1 禽流感病毒，自2003 年底以來，該病毒已在全球造成85 人死亡。作為預防措施，政府將撲殺所有鳥類農業、漁業和自然保護代理助理主任托馬斯·薛(Thomas Sit) 表示，在雞死亡的小農場5 公里（3.1 英里）範圍內禁止家禽，並關閉該市的步入式鳥舍和一個大型自然保護區。衛生署衛生防護中心顧問曾偉明表示，目前尚不清楚這隻雞是在哪裡感染這種致命疾病的。他在新聞發布會上說：“我們不知道這隻雞是在大陸感染的，還是在香港感染的。” “我們還不能真正得出任何結論。”這隻鳥於1月26日被偷運到香港，沒有任何症狀，並於1月31日發病。他說，鳥類疾病的典型潛伏期為2至10天。該雞是在農曆新年前非法帶入香港的。儘管擔心禽流感，政府仍在農曆新年1月29日左右增加了從中國大陸運往香港的雞隻數量。它在距離中國邊境約半公里（0.3英里）的地方生病並死亡，政府週日稱該地區還有一隻東方鵲鴝也死於H5N1病毒。曾說，這隻八哥的屍體是在城市遊樂場發現的。
香港稱在死鳥中發現更多 H5N1 流感[/url] 剛找到政府新聞稿；這隻八哥是在北九龍黃大仙發現的（不完全是在新界；在發現第一隻受感染喜鵲的地方以南超過10公里，而在發現第二隻喜鵲和現在走私雞的邊境地點以南又10公里） 。 http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/200602/01/P200602010235.htm 八哥在這裡不太像籠中鳥；普通居民。因此，對我來說，在圈養[野生]鳥類中看到感染的可能性較小。在有雞的地方餵食？ ——只能猜測。作為預防措施，政府將關閉鳥舍和米埔沼澤自然保護區。後來想起黃大仙：那裡有大廟；中國農曆新年慶祝活動的主要場所。只是想知道在黃大仙發現的八哥是否可能是農曆新年期間在寺廟釋放的批次的一部分——以求好運；谷歌搜索，發現了（這樣的例子）關於幾年前參觀寺廟的最後一位總督彭定康（Chris Patten）：“他幫助從九個籠子裡釋放了108 隻鳥，作為“放生儀式”的一部分，尋求為香港的福祉祝福孔人。”
（2005 年 5 月 30 日） http://www.customs.gov.hk/eng/new_release_20050530_smuggled_pork_e.html引用：共查獲鮮雞429公斤、鮮鴨37公斤、鮮鵝18公斤。除新鮮肉類外，沙頭角管制站昨天檢獲兩隻活雞並逮捕一人引用：加強對進口貨物和行李的檢查執法行動。結果，查獲鮮雞肉211公斤、鮮鴨7公斤、鮮鵝3.5公斤。引用：繼1月31日檢獲豬肉及雞肉後，沙頭角管制站石湧凹檢查站海關人員今日（2月3日）在一輛行駛於兩地之間的公共小巴上檢獲四袋豬肉及雞肉，重達68公斤。沙頭角村及上水。2 2 月 2006 at 4:05 下午 #4024
我向香港漁農自然護理署發送了電子郵件，告知八哥是在 1997 年克里斯·彭定康 (Chris Patten) 釋放鳥類的寺廟釋放的一批鳥類之一；剛收到的電子郵件顯然太簡短了：引用：感謝您於 2006 年 2 月 1 日發出的電子郵件，由於放飛是在 1997 年進行的，我們無法確定其中的八哥是否是該批放飛的鳥類之一。感謝您提請我們注意此事。
我的回答是：我不是說八哥是1997年放生的！這只是為了表明寺廟可以放生鳥類。我的意思是，八哥可能是在今年農曆新年期間被放生在那裡的。 （黃大仙祠或附近）。如果是這樣，那麼八哥就不是野鳥，而是圈養的鳥。喜鵲知更鳥也可能被圈養（因為打架？）——他們是否接受過檢查以發現這種跡象？圈養/貿易是這些鳥類感染H5N1 病毒的可能性遠高於與野鴨的任何接觸（在香港後海灣以外哪裡可以找到這些鴨子？——不容易）例如，在深圳，我去過市場，那裡有它們家禽/農場動物和野生動物（包括鳥類）。該品種在中國市場常見：
野生動物貿易監測 廣州 深圳 特定市場（pdf 檔）4 2 月 2006 at 5:17 下午 #4025引用：漁農自然照護署（漁護署）發言人今日（2月4日）表示，深井發現的一隻喜鵲初步檢測結果顯示疑似感染H5禽流感，並正進行進一步確診檢測。
該事件位於新界西海岸（荃灣附近），因此與香港最近的其他 H5N1 報告並不接近。
喜鵲之前（例如中國）檢測出 H5N1 病毒呈陽性，可能是在吃受感染鳥類的屍體後感染的。
2 月 6 日更新：H5N1 檢測結果呈陽性。
貼文編輯：martin，發佈於：2006/02/06 15:157 2 月 2006 at 10:40 下午 #4026
香港西北部屯門發現一隻被遺棄的死雞（其中有兩隻活雞），其 H5 檢測結果呈陽性。
附近發現一隻死去的小白鷺，結果顯示 H5 呈陽性。8 2 月 2006 at 10:40 下午 #4027
另一種感染 H5 的物種似乎很奇怪。
這隻白鷺鷥的H5N1病毒檢測結果呈陽性。9 2 月 2006 at 5:50 上午 #4028匿名的
看來攜帶 H5N1 的鳥類現在剛從香港的天空中掉下來。
沒想到涉及這麼多物種…9 2 月 2006 at 3:19 下午 #4029引用：看來攜帶 H5N1 的鳥類現在剛從香港的天空中掉下來。
現在，如果我不戴防撞頭盔和我妻子為我做的大橡膠套裝，我不會冒險外出。10 2 月 2006 at 12:35 下午 #4030
貼文編輯：martin，發佈於：2006/02/10 07:4520 2 月 2006 at 9:14 上午 #4031
每月從當地寵物鳥攤位收集超過 200 個拭子樣本，以檢測禽流感病毒，其中包括鳥園的病毒。檢測結果均為陰性。23 2 月 2006 at 3:10 下午 #4032
2 月 21 日政府新聞稿：引用：漁農自然護理署（漁護署）發言人今日（2月21日）表示，在港島及九龍採集的三隻死鳥初步檢測結果顯示疑似感染H5禽流感個案，並補充說正進行進一步確診檢測。實施。
屍體於2月20日從麗安村撿回23 2 月 2006 at 4:44 下午 #4033引用：路透香港2月22日電-最近從香港發現的野生鳥類屍體中採集的病毒樣本與2004年在日本和韓國出現的H5N1病毒株密切相關，但與在歐洲傳播的病毒株無關。頂尖科學家說道。
雖然——你不知道嗎——文章中提到這種病毒在野生鳥類（亞洲）中根深蒂固，但沒有給出真正的證據。即使提到了日本的案例，走私/貿易仍然有可能引入病毒。剛剛給Malik Peiris 博士發了一封電子郵件，文章中引用了他的話：如果這種H5N1 病毒確實在野生鳥類中根深蒂固（路透社，引用你的話），為什麼香港有如此奇怪的物種種類——全都是留鳥（嗯，可能是小白鷺），而且主要是鳴禽；為什麼這種趨勢集中在九龍和港島？例如，如何感染繡眼鳥或喜鵲知更鳥？為何農曆新年前後出現大量病例，且有兩隻雞呈陽性？而且，為什麼對健康野生鳥類的所有測試都對該菌株呈陰性？事實上，H5N1 在健康的野生鳥類中通常非常罕見。我想，非常好奇。 （據報道，俄羅斯準備在今年春天阻止野生鳥類築巢——至少在諾博西比利斯島，因為一些人認為野生鳥類是主要的H5N1 病毒載體。這對保育工作有影響。）— —進一步的想法（不在電子郵件中）：真的似乎Malik P 提出的奇怪想法。基於缺乏的信息，表明這種 H5N1 病毒株是野生鳥類中的地方病，連接日本/香港。然而，他是認為鄱陽野生鳥類有不同品系的團隊之一，從那裡到青海，然後到歐洲。儘管透過遷徙路線，鄱陽與香港的聯繫肯定比與青海的聯繫要緊密得多（沒有從鄱陽到青海的直接聯繫嗎？） 可惜的是，病毒學家說這些東西是野生鳥類，卻沒有費力去了解它們。 （畢竟，鳥類學家現在必須嘗試了解一些有關病毒的知識。）25 2 月 2006 at 5:02 下午 #4034引用：漁農自然護理署（漁護署）發言人今日（2月24日）表示，石硤尾一隻死亡家鴉初步檢測結果顯示疑似感染H5禽流感，並正進行進一步確認檢測。 。
至於早前三宗懷疑個案，涉及又一村發現一隻死大嘴烏鴉、淺水灣道發現一隻死文鳥及在灣仔發現一隻死白背文鳥，發言人表示，所有雀鳥均已確認經過一系列實驗室檢測後，感染了 H5N1 病毒。
– 所以，H5N1 是透過野生鳥類在香港主要城市傳播的…也就是說，是死鳥！ （有任何明顯健康的野生鳥類檢測呈陽性嗎？）
瘋狂的時代！26 2 月 2006 at 9:17 上午 #4035
現在，一隻死去的普通（黑嘴）喜鵲，香港島：引用：經民眾轉介後，漁護署人員於 2 月 24 日在香島道收集屍體。
另一種鴉科動物（烏鴉／喜鵲）－也就是城市附近的另一種食腐動物。5 3 月 2006 at 11:47 上午 #4036
那麼，有可能從透過市場引入，到一些食腐動物在野外滅絕——而這些食腐動物的數量並不多。8 3 月 2006 at 9:46 上午 #4037
1 月 10 日鵲鴝之後，主要是從 1 月 26 日開始——就在農曆新年之前，狗年從 1 月 29 日開始。自2月25日起未提交任何資料25 3 月 2006 at 8:29 下午 #4038
– 請注意，「本地」鳥類會更準確，因為不知道所有鳥類是野生還是圈養。7 1 月 2007 at 4:50 上午 #4039
漁護署人員於 12 月 31 日向公眾轉介後，在禮頓道收集屍體。
Meanwhile, the department has urged the public not to release pet birds as they have little chance of surviving in the wild.
Noting a report alleging that there is no control on such imports from the Mainland was incorrect, the department emphasised that all consignments from the Mainland must comply with requirements including health certification, and they are subject to inspection whether they enter by sea, air or land in accordance with Public Health (Animals & Birds) Regulations.
Inspection stepped up
The department has stepped up inspection of the Bird Garden from three times a week to five. Samples are regularly collected for testing for avian influenza viruses.
Of the 2,400 samples that were tested last year, none was positive for bird flu.
Fresh droppings from wild birds including migratory birds are also collected for H5 avian influenza testing. Last year, 6,400 samples were collected and the results were all negative.
As for dead birds collected for testing last year, 17 of about 10,000 birds were tested positive.
– as with records of dead birds with H5N1 early last year, an oddity.
Leighton Road’s a curious location for finding a “wild” bird of almost any kind – might get sparrows, but I’ve walked along quite often, and not noticed any birds there: it’s urban, and more than a stone’s throw from even Victoria Park.
Species odd too: I haven’t seen this species in urban HK, not even in parks. Mainly in rural spots, esp grassy areas such as former rice fields, wetlands near Deep Bay. Have seen on Cheung Chau, where I live; only occasional there, so some evidence of wandering.
Checking HK Birdwatchin Soc page, this is one of the two most commonly released specise at temples – released so people can supposedly get karma boost.
More info in thread on the HKBWS site – including distribution map, showing this species wasn’t mapped in urban areas including Causeway Bay, as well as article from S China Morning Post on possible link to bird releases, including:引用：Richard Corlett, professor of ecology and biodiversity at the University of Hong Kong, said a complete ban on releasing birds was preferable.
“It is a danger to public health because the sellers and buyers come into contact with birds and bird droppings with none of the precautions that are taken with poultry, and the birds are then released into the environment,” he said.
A study by a post-doctoral student last year estimated that between 500,000 and a million birds are imported for release every year, Professor Corlett said.
“[These birds] are mostly caught in China. They are not vaccinated, quarantined or inspected, and they were transported into Hong Kong in appallingly dirty and crowded conditions. Many of them are sick and injured,” he said.
Further info – after an email request for guff on the location:
A map of Causeway Bay – not too great – shows Leighton Road:
Yes, it’s near stops on the main tram route from Harcourt Garden/Central east to North Point and beyond. Also close to a major MTR station. Causeway Bay’s a bustling area, especially for shopping.
Main HK bird market isn’t here, but in Kowloon. There are, though, a few bird shops scattered around – can’t remember if in Causeway Bay area, but plausible in side streets.
There’s a Tin Hau temple a few hundred metres to the east. Can’t recall other temples, but there are plenty of temples scattered around HK.
I noticed re the h5n1 positive munia being among five dead birds (all munias?) picked up on Leighton Road. To me, indeed suggestive of being dropped from van, say.
The road is lined by commercial buildings, maybe with a few apartment blocks (pricier; not the kinds of places I’d expect to be transient points for birds).
Last year’s minor flurry of h5n1 in “wild birds” involved several rather similar cases – chiefly urban, at least one only a block or two away from main bird market, another very close to a major temple.
I then figured that any traders with birds dying of what may be H5N1 would try to dispose of them without officials knowing.
Meanwhile – touch wood – our key reserve for wild birds is yet to record a single case, despite extensive testing. (I’m of course hoping it stays this way; hope that no h5n1 somehow introduced from farms/markets – densely packed waterbird flocks could be impacted.)
Post edited by: Martin, at: 2007/01/10 16:1714 1 月 2007 at 10:16 上午 #4040
From Associated Press/Canadian Press article:引用：HONG KONG (AP) – Something was strange about the little brown bird found dead from bird flu in one of Hong Kong’s busiest shopping districts. The scaly breasted munia usually lives in rural areas of the territory. So how did it and five others come to be in a bustling urban district – raising the threat of exposing residents and tourists to the virus? Experts think the birds may have been used in a Buddhist ritual that frees hundreds of birds to improve karma. So, with worries rising in Asia about a new outbreak of bird flu, officials are urging the religious practice be stopped to protect public health. ,,, The scaly breasted munia is native to Hong Kong but is usually found in tussocks in rural areas, said Lew Young, a manager at the Chinese territory’s Mai Po bird sanctuary. "Six scaly breasted munia being found dead at the same spot at one time easily leads one to suspect whether they were being released," he said. The birds are commonly used in the Buddhist ceremonies, Young added. "They are usually transported to Hong Kong from the mainland in boxes. If one of the birds is sick, the rest are likely to be sick as well since they are crammed in one box," he said. Aidia Chan, a postgraduate student in ecology who studied the releases for her thesis last year at Hong Kong University, said the frequency of releasing birds in Hong Kong is far more than had been suspected. She contacted 229 religious groups in the city and 48 admitted they released birds to seek blessings. The groups practise the ritual one to 18 times each year, releasing as many as 3,000 birds each time, she said. "Based on the figures they gave me, I estimate they released a range of 400,000 to 600,000 birds in 2006," Chan said. "There are also people who buy and release birds individually and there’s no way for me to quantify them, so there should be more other than these 48 groups," she said. …
Hong Kong Buddhists release birds in ritual, despite bird flu worries14 1 月 2007 at 10:26 上午 #4041
from HK Govt press release, 13 Jan:引用：Preliminary testing of a dead bird found in Shek Kip Mei has indicated a suspected case of H5 avian influenza, a spokesman for the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department said today (January 13).
Further confirmatory tests are still being conducted.
The carcass of the Crested Goshawk was collected by department staff at the hill behind Shek Kip Mei Health Centre on January 9 after being alerted by a member of the public.
Crested Goshawk is a raptor, preying on birds – chiefly songbirds.
Shek Kip Mei is highly urban, chiefly residential area in north Kowloon, with high-rise housing estates. Near the scrubby hillsides of hills just north of Kowloon, so wild Crested Goshawk may well occur here. (Though hope it’s checked for signs it was held in captivity, and dumped – as with at least one HK peregrine with H5N1).
My view: if proves to have H5N1, likely caught through a bird it ate. Can speculate that this was a bird released from captivity. (Or, if the goshawk wsa captive, fed on diseased chicken or some other bird.)
Post edited by: Martin, at: 2007/01/14 02:3616 1 月 2007 at 11:34 下午 #4042
“In Hong Kong, there is no H5N1 activity in poultry. So for this bird that was found dead, the question is how (it) got infected?”
Prayer bird species range from munias, Japanese white-eye, white-rumped munia and tree sparrows costing as little as HK$4 (US$0.50) each, to the more expensive azure-winged magpies and Mongolian larks. Hunters in China use large fine “mist” nets that the birds fly into.
While the Hong Kong government tightly regulates poultry imports, laws for wild bird imports are much more lax, making it a potential crack in the city’s bird flu defences.
Richard Corlett, a professor of ecology at the University of Hong Kong, said the trade in wild birds was on a much larger scale than previously thought, with at least half a million birds freed by Buddhists in 2005, sometimes thousands at a time.
“Mongolian larks, for instance, must have been caught in northern China, trucked down to Hong Kong then released here in a totally unsuitable environment, where they promptly die.”
Mass bird release sites in quiet corners of Hong Kong’s country parks are often littered with discarded empty bamboo cages and dead bird carcasses, Corlett added.
Hong Kong’s concerns come as the European Union passed new laws last week banning imports of wild birds on health and animal welfare grounds, a move which Corlett said the Hong Kong government should follow.
“There’s a great deal of reluctance to acknowledge this is a problem … You can go and buy 10,000 budgerigars and release them in a country park and there’s nothing to stop you doing that,” Corlett said.
Some experts see unregulated imports of wild birds as a serious bird flu risk. “This speculation or hypothesis is becoming more and more of a concern. There is more evidence to support this,” said Dr. Lo Wing-lok an infectious diseases expert and former legislator.
HK experts cite “prayer bird” concerns over H5N1
The (Hong Kong) Standard has a related item, inc:引用：A microbiologist has called on the government to step up surveillance on the illegal trade of smuggled birds while an ecologist has suggested a complete ban on the release of wild birds in the SAR, even on religious grounds.
“The SAR government should deal with the problem at source and work with the Guangdong authorities to test the birds,” microbiologist Lo Wing-lok said Monday.
Lo, who accused the government for trying to evade the problem, insists more can be done to monitor the illegal trade of smuggled wild birds from the mainland.
Hong Kong University ecologist Richard Corlett said the goshawk is a predator and the dead one found in Shek Kip Me was most likely released in a religious ceremony [or ate a released bird??].
“Although we cannot know what bird it ate, we do know that the birds released by Buddhists are often in terrible condition because of the cruel way in which they are treated during capture, transport from the mainland and in captivity in Hong Kong, and this makes them very vulnerable to predators like a goshawk,” Corlett said.
He added that the more than half a million birds released in Hong Kong each year probably are eaten by predators shortly after being set free.
Corlett suggested a ban on the release of birds on grounds of animal cruelty since almost half a million are captured each year and transported to Hong Kong in atrocious conditions.
Post edited by: Martin, at: 2007/01/16 16:1120 1 月 2007 at 11:21 上午 #4043
在有關日本繡眼鳥和家鴉被發現死亡的消息後，以及在九龍的 H5 中，將以下內容發佈到有關 H5N1 和野生鳥類的群組中：
2006 年 1 月至 3 月和 2007 年城市 H5N1 疫情的起源。
WWF、TRAFFIC、HKBWS 和/或 KFBG 是否有興趣起草一份
薄扶林道31 1 月 2007 at 9:44 下午 #4044
News recently in of dead peregrine with H5N1; also found in urban area – Tsuen Wan, by northwest Kowloon. (Was it captive, I wonder.)
Just asked to comment on article in S China Morning Post today, which began:引用：Mai Po Nature Reserve in the northwestern New Territories provides a “natural” early warning system for bird flu in Hong Kong, according to a visiting bird flu expert.
Dirk Pfeiffer, professor of veterinary epidemiology at the University of London’s Royal Veterinary College, said the number of dead birds with H5N1 found this month was insignificant compared with the number of carcasses collected for testing and should not cause alarm.
Up to yesterday, only seven out of 1,600 birds collected had been found with H5N1 flu. This compared with January last year when 470 dead birds were collected, four of which tested positive.
For the whole of last year, 17 out of 10,000 birds collected had H5N1.
Although any “trigger point” marking the explosion of bird flu would be difficult to anticipate, Dr Pfeiffer said “to be quite frank, you would see an excess mortality in Mai Po before that actually occurs”. “Before you see large percentages in resident wild birds you would actually see something in Mai Po,” he said.
“You actually have a nice warning system there.”
Even if wild birds at Mai Po became infected, it would be “a long way” before this would spread from poultry to humans, and then among humans.
it concluded:引用：Meanwhile, television and radio announcements will be broadcast from next week advising people not to release birds into the wild, whether for Buddhist merit-making ceremonies or any other cultural or religious reason.
“We have talked to Buddhist and Taoist associations and they agreed not to release birds,” said Thomas Sit Hon-chung, assistant director of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department.
He said it would be useless to ban the practice because Hong Kong was a big area.
I saw that remark re Mai Po, and was rather surprised.
Seemed to me that made by an “expert” who had parachuted in, and had little knowledge re wild birds and H5N1.
Not sure why he didn’t stress that, despite extensive testing, not one bird from Mai Po has yet proven H5N1 positive.
This is strong evidence that waterbirds – the main reservoir for natural bird flus – do not sustain and spread H5N1 (chiefly as “dead ducks don’t fly”; HK yet to find H5N1 in an apparently healthy wild bird of any kind).
He might also have noted that the species and pattern involved in H5N1 in dead wild birds in HK this year does not fit what you’d expect were migratory – or even resident – wild birds the source. Four songbirds, plus two birds of prey and a crow – all species that are resident in Hong Kong; the songbirds all commonly released in rituals, the birds of prey mainly bird eaters (and I haven’t seen whether were signs either or both may have been captive birds that were dumped, as evidently case with one or two peregrines that tested positive here in the past), the crow a general feeder including scavenger.
So, Mai Po would be early warning system were H5N1 actually spread by wild birds.
But as this isn’t the case, it’s the wrong place to look. Worldwide, too much attention has been diverted to looking at wild birds, rather than better scrutinising poultry trade, legal and – very importantly – illegal.
Spread isn’t from wild birds to poultry and on to humans.
It’s from poultry to poultry, poultry to wild birds, poultry to humans, poultry to cats, poultry to even tigers (Thai zoo).
(Do I think there’s conspiracy here? Something like it, I’m afraid, yes.
Officials don’t want to admit failings. FAO’s chief vet Joseph Domenech has said something along lines of there being threats to food security if poultry industry is chiefly to blame. FAO had promoted fish farming with chicken manure used as feed: seems a potential reservoir for H5N1, as I saw in Indonesia:
I’ve read of China likewise using poultry manure as fish feed; even dead chickens can be used – as in my photos. HK doesn’t do this, I’m told by Lew Young, manager of Mai Po.
Poultry industry is massive – farms can have many thousands of birds. Much money involved. Attached of interest here, perhaps, albeit lengthy. [A report by GRAIN, on industrial poultry farming connection to H5N1])
Govt’s APIs regarding Buddhist releases are, in this regard, late in being introduced. Even H5N1 in wild birds records early last year indicated wild bird trade/releases was key culprit (most records were urban; yet vast majority of our wild birds are in rural areas, with key concentrations at Mai Po and elsewhere in Deep Bay).
Perhaps, then, after readily blaming wild birds – from Kowloon Park and Penfold Park outbreaks some years ago, onwards – govt here is seeing a little sense.
Post edited by: Martin, at: 2007/01/31 13:4716 2 月 2007 at 10:35 上午 #4045
A few more dead birds with H5N1 in HK city – all Kowloon.
A blue magpie: resident species.
Two silver-eared mesias: not native to Hong Kong, though breeds in forests – population established from birds escaping/released from captivity. These local birds restricted to woods. As these two were real close to the main bird market, and distant from forest, points extremely strongly to bird market as the source.23 2 月 2007 at 11:05 下午 #4046
Post made to birdforum.net, by Mike Kilburn of HK Birdwatching Society:引用：Another interesting discovery in Hong Kong. A friend of mine has reviewed the data on H5N1-infected birds in Hong Kong and found that in the last 2 years all the birds infected are either commonly kept as cagebirds, commonly released by Buddhists to gain spiritual merit, or urban raptors and scavengers which would be likely to prey on sick or dead birds.
Even more interesting . . .
Of the 10 H5N1-positive birds this year 8 (80%) were found within a 3km radius of the Mong Kok Bird Market and 7 (70%) within 1km!
Of the 15 cases last year the figures were 7 (47%)within 3 km and 4 (27%) within 1km.
During the same period not a single bird was discovered with H5N1among the thousands of birds tested at Mai Po.
Does this not suggest what the source might be to anyone?
Apparently not to our government’s health officials, vets or conservation staff
1. Mong Kok is one of the most densely populated places on the planet.
2. The bird market remains open and birds continue to arrive in Hong Kong
3.Our Health Minister has publicly spoken out in defence of the livelihoods of the bird sellers and has not closed the market. (priorities a la DEFRA?)
4. UN figures suggest around 1 million birds are traded through HK every year
5. A recent HK University study suggested an additional 600,000 were coming in annually from China without regulation, inspection or quarantine
6. Our Government CITES officers monitor a paltry 40,000 imported birds per year
7. Two Silver-eared Mesias – the bird which brought H5N1 to the UK last year were found with H5N1 just 200m from the Mong Kok Bird market earlier this month.23 2 月 2007 at 11:09 下午 #4047
Following Mike’s post, a dead Common Kestrel found in Kowloon confirmed to have H5N1.
Another raptor, which could feed on sick small songbirds.
Then, news of two dead munias found in Kowloon, being tested for H5N1.
One a scaly-breasted: native to HK, but old rice fields not urban.
The other a chestnut munia: not native, known to be traded.
Have recently been media reports re ideas for limiting bird trade and bird releases in Hong Kong – but no real action taken.4 3 月 2007 at 10:22 下午 #4048
Robert Webster’s been a key blamer of wild birds for migrating about spreading H5N1 (i’ve emailed him at times).
Now, tho, reportedly seeing some daylight re HK records of dead munias etc with H5N1.引用：HONG KONG (Reuters) – Leading virologists urged governments on Saturday to curb the trade of wild birds as they can spread the H5N1 bird flu virus, which has made a comeback in many parts of the world in recent months.
The warning comes as Hong Kong confirmed a scaly-breasted munia found dead in late February in the densely-populated district of Sham Shui Po had tested positive for the H5N1.
It was the 13th wild bird to have been found dead with the virus in Hong Kong since the start of this year.
“The munia is not a migratory bird. Again, it points to humans and the trade in movement of birds that are responsible for spreading this virus,” said virologist Robert Webster from St Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis.
Small, wild birds are bought and sold across borders and released for religious purposes in many parts of the world. The practice is particularly strong in Hong Kong, which has a huge population of Buddhists and Taoists. The city imports the small birds mostly from mainland China.
still manages to get in mention of migrating birds spreading it about, at the end – and his Trojan Ducks theory (might apply in domestic ducks, but could also be the case that vaccinated poultry harbour h5n1.
But, progress it seems.
Bird flu experts urge halt to wild bird trade13 3 月 2007 at 10:36 上午 #4049
Here’s a letter I sent S China Morning Post; published a couple of days ago.
Suppose you were suddenly grabbed from your everyday life, shoved in a cage crammed with other humans, transported and sold in squalid conditions in which many others die and you could become diseased, and you were then moved again, and dumped in an area far from your home. And the only reason for all this was that the person releasing you could gain “karma”. Would you be grateful?
That’s akin to the situation faced by hundreds of thousands of wild birds that are traded in Hong Kong each year. Their plight has been highlighted lately as some of these birds – and local birds that have eaten them – have been found dead in the city, and tests have revealed they had H5N1.
The Buddhist practice of releasing captive birds and other animals as a way of doing good may have been worthwhile originally. But today, for the most part, it’s clearly a horrible practice – involving far more suffering and death than if these releases did not happen at all.
Despite concerns regarding H5N1, the government is loathe to legislate against the practice. Yet Buddhist associations have key roles to play as well. They can surely advise Hong Kong Buddhists that if they wish to help wild animals, there are many far better ways to do so than releasing birds – or even fish – into environments that may be totally unsuitable. If wildlife truly benefits, the Buddhists helping them really will merit karma.14 3 月 2007 at 9:44 下午 #4050
Press release from Hong Kong Birdwatching Society includes:引用：Echoing sentiments expressed by leading virologists Professor John Oxford from the UK and the Dr Robert Webster from the United States (appendix A), Hong Kong-based microbiologist Professor Malik Peiris said that the 500,000+ wild bird trade into Hong was the most likely source of the H5N1-infected wild birds that were being repeatedly detected in Hong Kong:
“Recognizing that the natural habitats of many of these infected birds is not urban, and that the Chestnut Munia in particular no longer occurs in the wild in Hong Kong in any habitat, there is no other logical explanation for the presence of H5N1 in birds found in these highly urbanized locations. Given that such infected birds pose a threat to the poultry industry and to human health, more stringent and effective regulation or an outright ban on the trade of wild birds seems a sensible precaution,” said Professor Peiris.
The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society (HKBWS) called on the Secretary for Health, Welfare and Food Dr York Chow and the Centre for Health Protection to recognize the wild bird trade and religious releases as an important source of H5N1 introduction into Hong Kong, and to close this route for human infection by banning the trade.
“Government data shows that the most feared case for a new pandemic – H5N1 – is being found weekly in Mong Kok, Sham Shui Po and Happy Valley – some of the most densely populated areas on Earth,” said Mike Kilburn, Vice Chairman of HKBWS. “Munias and mesias – non-migratory birds commonly sold for religious release, have been clearly identified as carriers of the virus.”
You can read the release – and see map with “wild bird” cases in Hong Kong last year and this – at:
Bird Trade Bringing H5N1 to Mong Kok, Sham Shui Po & Happy Valley
Global H5N1 Experts & Hong Kong Bird Watching Society Calls for Ban