Following on from above post, comes this news on National Geographic website:
Populations of the large birds on Possession Island in the Indian Ocean’s Crozet Archipelago are declining as sea temperatures warm and the birds are forced to travel longer distances to find food.
In recent years, many of the prey species have died or migrated as the ocean warms and the algae that those animals eat are impacted.
Warming temperatures also force fish to swim into cool waters farther away from the island, causing penguins to travel greater distances to hunt. The longer time away from home reduces chick feedings, the researchers found.
So during years when seas become warmer, penguins do not breed as successfully, Le Maho and colleagues found.
At the edge of the sea ice, where penguin adults forage during winter, just a 0.47 degree Fahrenheit (0.26 degree Celsius) increase resulted in a 9 percent decrease in the population two years later.