After forum post (swans etc thread) from Ed Keeble, including

quite an interesting post on UKBN today from Serbia, referring to extensive imports from China of poultry-based fertilizer to be used in fishponds. Exact constituents and usage not clear from post, but I assume this means fertilizer to be dumped into water to promote growth of weed/algae.

just done some googling, and some info maybe of interest:

Guff here includes big chicken manure exporter on Black Sea coast; duck manure used in fish farming in China, Russia, parts of east Europe.

Fertilizer exporters:

Dear Sirs We have opportunity to make non-polluting organic fertilizer from chicken and cow manure in volume more than 20000 tons per one year. A place of loading is the Black Sea. There is an opportunity to adjust manufacture near coasts of Pacific Ocean. If you have to this interest we are ready …
from NIKKOM [Russia]

Nikkom site does mention “struction of pathogenic micro flora” – but still, interesting…

Tianjin Yibo Biological Technology Development Co. , Ltd.   [Province: Tianjin]
Our company is engaged in producing different types of fertilizer , which include compound fertilizer, organic fertilizer, bio-organic fertilizer, for customers all around the world.


Liaoning Xinxing Industry And Science Co., Ltd.   [Province: Liaoning]
Our company manufacture organic manure, which is made of chicken dejection. It is use for corn, ripe, coya, fruit tree and so on. Our product is a kind of pure biologic manure.


News article, from 2000:

China’s Largest Organic Fertilizer Plant Opens:
The largest and most up-to-date organic fertilizer plant ever built in China began operations recently in the port city of Dalian in northeast China’s Liaoning Province.
The plant was built by Han Wei, a private owner of China’s largest chicken farm, at a cost of 20 million yuan.
… Equipped with technology provided by the Shenyang Applied Ecology Research Institute (SAERI) under the Academy of Chinese Sciences, the plant is expected to turn out 100,000 tons of fertilizer this year, and has already received an order for 20,000 tons from Japan.

Han raises 2 million chickens producing 80 tons of fresh eggs a day, but the 200 tons of manure excreted by chickens everyday is a headache, so Han collaborated with SAERI to build the fertilizer plant.


As far as I’ve noticed amidst flurry of info, much of focus re potential role of poultry manure in sustaining (and spreading) H5N1 has been on chickens. But, turns out ducks important too.

To date, fish-cum-duck integration is chiefly practical in China, Hungary, East Germany, Poland and the Soviet Union. Fish-cum-duck integration has developed into a fixed model of integrated fish farming. In recent years, this model, either on the scale aspect or on the managerial aspect, has been developing very rapidly. This is especially true in areas containing a network of rivers (e.g., Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces).


A paper looking at integrated fish farming on one farm (in early 1980s) includes:

Generally, one cross-bred duck can produce 50 kg of manure each year. Therefore, 3000 ducks are enough for one hectare of fish pond. Experience on this farm has shown that fish production will be decreased if the number of ducks per hectare exceeds 6000
[poorly reproduced photo below this shows high density of ducks – not typical in wild, and certainly not 365 days a year in any one place]


Post edited by: martin, at: 2006/02/21 14:57