Beidaihe autumn report - species accounts

Beidaihe autumn bird migration report (1986-1990): species systematically treated

Species systematically treated

Geoff J. Carey, Daniel G. Duff, Martin D. Williams and Xu Weishu

Around 345 species were recorded during the surveys.
Summaries of the autumn records of La Touche and Hemmingsen are given, and augmented where appropriate by records of other observers—records cited from Wilder and Hubbard (1924) sometimes refer to He-bei province and Beijing, rather than specifically to Beidaihe—and by spring re-cords of La Touche and Hemmingsen. Cheng (1987) is also referred to; notes on status for a species cover its known range within China.
Note that survey periods and intensities dif-fered. The dates were: 1986—20 August to 20 November; 1987—18 August to 30 November; 1988—8 September to 18 November; 1989—14-29 September and 5-7 October (only selected records are in-cluded from these periods) and 8 October to 16 November; 1990—19 August to 22 October.
The 1987 data is from Palfery (unpubl.); 1988 data is mainly from Hornskov (1989), sometimes together with records from the Earthwatch survey from 8 October to 16 November (there was considerable overlap in records during this period, especially of birds recorded from the Lotus Hills); 1989 data from 14-29 September and 5-7 October is from Jørgensen (unpubl.); 1990 data to 22 October was supplied by J.H. Christensen (in litt.); other data is from logs kept by MDW and GJC.
Abbreviations used are as follows:
for species listed in Collar et al. (1993): (CR)—critically endangered; (EN)—endangered; (VU)—vulnerable; (CD)—conservation dependent; (NT)—near threatened.
for references: Ch—Cheng (1987); COE—Williams (1986); H—Hemmingsen and Guildal (1968); Ho—Hornskov (un-publ.); LT—La Touche (1920, 1921); Sh—Shaw (1936); WH—Wilder and Hub-bard (1924).
for localities at Beidaihe: LH—Lotus Hills; Re—Henghe reservoir; Se—seafront along the southern coast of Beidaihe (from Legation Point west to near the Lotus Hills); SF—the (Henghe) Sandflats, an estuarine area on the northern edge of town; YH—Yanghe estuary (ca. 5 km south of town).

Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata LT—one seen in game shop, end of November. Other (unidentified) divers seen in spring and autumn. H, COE—no records. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to the coast from Heilong River, Heilongjiang, south to Guangdong; status: extremely rare.
1986: singles were recorded off King’s Point on 9 November and off FP on 20 November.
1987: one bird, 3 November.
1988 (Ho): no records.
1989: 29 bird-days, 4-8 November; highest day total 17 on 5 November; all records from the coast; most were in flight.
1990: one (same bird?) was at SF on 3rd and 4 November.

Pacific Diver/Black-throated Diver Gavia pacifica/G. arctica LT, H, COE—no records. Cheng: Black-throated Diver re-corded as a migrant at two localities in northeastern provinces, and one in Shandong; Pacific Diver recorded at one locality in Liaoning and at Fuzhou (two birds).
1989: one flew past LP on 4 November.

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis LT—common in October. H—only one certain autumn observation, due to difficulty in identification. WH—recorded evidence of breeding. COE—from 25 March, with a maximum of 20; up to seven trilling males.
1986: 778 bird-days, 20 August to 16 November, with a peak count of 51 on 16 October. Breeding had evidently taken place at Re, where the maximum count of juveniles was 17, with seven adults, on 27 August. The numbers of local birds, which tended to linger at Re, make it difficult to accurately assess the passage period, though it appears the peak migration was over 5-25 October. Re was, by far, the favoured locality.
1987: 252 bird-days, beginning of survey to 9 November; other than 15 on 20 August, day totals in single figures until 26 September when 14 (including four immatures); then again single figures until 12 on 16 October; there were 12 on 21st, 16 on 17th and 14 on 23 October; after six on 26 October the only records were singles on 1st and 9 November.
1988 (Ho): 51 bird-days, 24 September to 18 November.
1989: three at Re on 16 September; 27 bird-days, 8 October to 6 November; highest count 12 at YH on 6 November.
1990: before 23 October, 166 bird-days, highest day total 19 on 28 August. From 23 October, 12 bird-days, 25 October to 5 November; highest day total four on 25 October (three at Re, one at LH).

Slavonian Grebe (Horned Grebe) Podiceps auritus LT, H, COE—no records. Shaw—rare migrant in Hebei.
1987: seven bird-days, 21 October to 6 November; highest day total two on 2nd and 6 November.
1990: six bird-days, 30 October to 16 November; two flew south on 30 October, otherwise singles at SF and YH.

Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—breeds Heilongjiang, migrant and winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: one was at SF (caught in fishing line) on 31 October and 1 November.
1987: one on 14 October.

Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus LT—in autumn as late as 17 November. H—quite common, from 22 October to 23 November, with an exceptionally early record over 26-27 July. COE—784 bird-days, 15 March to 3 May.
1986: 124 bird-days, 6 September to 20 November. The first record—an adult at SF—was followed by four flying south past the same locality on 21 September. A further 11 bird-days were logged to 23 October, and the next day saw the beginning of significant passage, which continued until the end of the period. The maximum day total was 40 on 18 November; 22 on 31 October was another notable tally. Most birds were seen on the sea off SF, although 37 were observed from LH, flying north, on 18 November.
1987: 92 bird-days, 13 October to 21 November; highest day total 25 on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): 22 bird-days, 8 October to 17 November.
1989: 100 bird-days, 9 October to 16 November; highest day total 41 on 7 November.
1990: before 23 October, 22 bird-days, early bird on 31 August and highest day total ten on 9 October. From 23 October, 66 bird-days, 26 October to 16 November; 13 flew south, all on 30 October, and highest count of birds present 23 on 4 November (22 at SF, one at TH).

Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis LT—one probable in spring. H—total of 8-12 recorded on four or five dates from 6-27 May 1944, and a female shot on 6 November 1944. COE—246 bird-days, 24 March to 17 April.
1986: one was at Re from 28 October to 1 November.
1987: 17 bird-days, 13 October to 8 November.
1988 (Ho): one on 17 October.
1989: eight bird-days, 9 October to 5 November.
1990: one was at YH on 16 November.
It appears this species is scarce in autumn; it may be common, sometimes in large flocks, in spring.

Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo COE—four on 9 April.
1986: no certain records.
1987: one immature present, 23-30 October.
1988 (Ho): no records.
1989: 370 flew south, 7 October to 10 November; highest day totals 64 on 10th and 135 on 15 October; only record after 25 October was one flying south on 10 November. Most were identified with hindsight, after several Temminck’s Cormorants had been seen and differences between the two species were appreciated.
1990: before 23 October, eight bird-days, highest day total five on 27 September. From 23 October, nine bird-days, 1-14 November; two flew south on 1st, otherwise records of singles on seven dates (perhaps involving only one bird).
See Great Cormorant/Temminck’s Cormorant.

Temminck’s Cormorant (Japanese Cormorant) Phalacrocorax capillatus COE—one on 16 April.
1986: as in spring 1985, only one bird was certainly identified (by the green sheen on the wings): on 14 September, flying south over LH.
1987: singles on 5th, 6th and 23 October; a further 93 birds considered to be this species flew south in late October (92 on 29th, one on 30th).
1988 (Ho): five birds, probably this species, flew south on 29 October.
1989: 26 flew south, 26 October to 8 November. We found their short tails and thick necks (also less gliding flight than Great Cormorant?) could give them a goose-like appearance.
1990: singles recorded on 11th and 24 October; flying south on latter date.
See Great Cormorant/Temminck’s Cormorant.

Great Cormorant/Temminck’s Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo/P. capillatus LT—not uncommon in autumn. H—common, 12 August to 6 November; most believed to be Great Cormorants. COE—143 bird-days, 19 March to 7 May. Ch—Great Cormorant breeds occasionally in, and migrates through, Hebei; status: common in breeding regions, rare elsewhere. Temminck’s Cormorant given as summer visitor to Hebei; status: rare.
1986: 73 or 74 individuals were noted flying south from 28 September to 17 October, with all except one seen from LH. The maximum day count was 30 on 14 October; 18 on 4th and 21 on 17 October were other notable tallies.
1987: 123 bird-days (116 birds flew south), 5-30 October.
1990: three were recorded before 23 October.

Pelagic Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus LT—occurs on the Hebei coast. H—no records. WH—one specimen, 28 July. COE—89 individuals, 25 March to 6 May.
1986: one was seen from LH, flying south, on 8 October.
1988 (Ho): one flew south, 12 November.
[heading=Bitterns, egrets and herons]
Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris LT—often recorded on migration, from the latter half of September to the first few days of October. H—four or five autumn records in three years, 4 September to 24 October. COE—four or five birds, 28 March to 26 April.
1986: 30 bird-days were logged from 14 dates between 13 September and 11 November, inclusive. About 25 individuals were involved, including one which was seen to fly into trees at LH on 17 October, and three which flew into trees at this locality on 27 October. Most records were of birds migrating past LH; others were seen at Se and Re. The highest day total was 15 (all recorded at LH; 12 flew south after 17h00) on 27 October.
1987: 14 bird-days (seven birds flew south), 27 September to 26 October; seven were recorded flying south, including five (the highest day total) on 3 October.
1988 (Ho): at least ten bird-days, mainly late September to early October, late bird on 7 November.
1989: nine bird-days, 7 October to 4 November; six flew south on 12 October.
1990: four bird-days were logged before 23 October.

Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis LT—no records. H—one autumn record. COE—27 bird-days, 18 May to 1 June.
1986: 77 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 10 October; of these, all except six were from Re. Main passage occurred from 27-31 August, when 45 bird-days were logged; the highest day totals were 14 on 27th, ten on 29th and 21 on 31 August—all but one of these birds were at Re; the highest day total in September was four on 14th.
1987: 87 bird-days, beginning of survey to 15 October; the highest day totals were 15 on 19th and 11 on 22 August; the highest day total in September was five on 17th.
1988 (Ho): 13 bird-days, 16 September to 15 October.
1989: singles (same bird?) at Re on 8th, 10th, 13th and 14 October.
1990: eight bird-days were logged before 23 October.

•(NT)Schrenck’s Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus LT—summers in the district. H—no records. COE—43 bird-days, from 18 May to 1 June.
1986: 11 bird-days were logged from seven dates between 20 August and 30 September; it appears that the records involved eight individuals. Eight bird-days were logged to 29 August; after which the only records were one on 9th and two on 30 September. Re was the favoured locality; the highest day total was three on 25 August.
1987: 18 bird-days, beginning of survey to 6 October; other than two on 3 September, no more than one in a day.
1988 (Ho): three singles, 27 September to 6 October.
1989: singles at LP on 7th and Re on 10 October.
1990: six bird-days were logged before 23 October.

Little Green Heron (Striated Heron) Butorides striatus LT—three records, all in spring. H—no records. COE—ten or more birds, 28 April to 23 May. Ch—summers in northern part of Hebei.
1986: singles were at LH on 9th and Re on 24 September.
1987: one bird, 20 September.

Chinese Pond-Heron Ardeola bacchus LT, H—no records. WH—first specimen shot about 1908, since when Hebei records in five years of no more than six birds in a day. Galsworthy (in litt.)—at ‘marshes’ (Re?), up to ten on 3rd and three on 4 September 1983. COE—common, 22 April to 1 June; breeding at Re. Ch—summers in Hebei.
1986: 147 bird-days were logged from 22 August to 16 October. The maximum day count was 42 on 27 August, when the main passage commenced, lasting until 6 September. During this period, 102 bird-days were logged, including ten coming in from over the sea on 6 September. Most records were from Re, though birds were occasionally seen migrating over SF.
1987: 644 bird-days, beginning of survey to 27 September. The highest day totals were 61 on 19th and 96 on 30 August, 55 on 1st, 50 on 7th and 70 on 16 September: most or all of these were counts of birds at Re at dusk.
1988 (Ho): 64 bird-days, 11 September to 5 October; highest count 33 flying to roost on 19 September.
1989: at Re, five on 16th, one on 20th and four on 21 September.
1990: 434 bird-days were logged before 23 October; highest day total 40 on 29 August.

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis LT, H—no records. Shaw—summer visitor to Hebei, rather rare. COE—one on 2 May.
1987: singles on 19th and 20 August and 11 September.

Great Egret Egretta alba LT—one record, 5 November. H—two certain records of E.a. alba—three on 31 March and one on 22 October; one probable E.a. modesta on 4 August 1944. E.a. alba records in China are in late autumn, winter or early spring; summer records of Great Egrets are of E.a. modesta. WH—once very common in Hebei, but population greatly decreased as a result of plume hunting. COE—14 birds, 9 April to 21 May. Ch—occasionally recorded from Hebei.
1986 five individuals were recorded; all were seen from LH, flying south. There were singles on 10th and 23 September and three on 17 October.
1987: singles flew south on 20th, 22nd and 31 August, 2 September and 30 October.
1988 (Ho): 11 flew south, 7-17 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): ten birds seen in November, flying south: seven on 4th, two on 9th and one on 14th.
1989: singles flew south on 19th and 31 October.
1990: before 23 October, 32 bird-days were logged (20 individuals?); the highest count was nine at SF on 5 September. From 23 October, nine were recorded flying south: seven on 2nd and singles on 9th and 10 November.

Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia LT, H—no records. COE—11 birds recorded from 20 April to 21 May.
1987: 11 bird-days (five birds flew south), 20 August to 25 September.
1990: one was at SF, with Great Egrets, on 5 September.

Little Egret Egretta garzetta LT, H—no records. Hemmingsen and Guildal (1968) cite Wilder as reporting that until 20 January 1943 the evidence of the occurrence of this species in Hebei rested on two specimens measured in 1923, and on David and Oustalet (1877, p. 440). COE— singles on 14 April and 26-27 May. Ch--does not list for Hebei, but notes that occasionally recorded in Beijing municipality.
1990: 25 bird-days (six individuals?), highest count five on 27 August; all before 23 October.

•(EN)Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes LT—no records. Wilder (1941)—specimen collected, 5 September 1941. H—eight on 1 June 1944, one on 6 June 1945. COE—no records.
1987: single birds at Re on 27th and 28 August and 12 September.
1990: one was at SF on 21 September.

Unidentified white egrets Egretta spp.
1987: one on 23 August.
1990: two Little or Intermediate Egrets flew south on 11 September.

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea LT—abundant migrant, from the last ten days of July to the end of October. H—common, from 19 July to 12 November. COE—675 bird-days, 18 March to 21 May.
1986: 1620 bird-days were logged from 19 August to 16 November. Significant passage occurred from 27 August to 17 October, after which the numbers dropped sharply and the species was recorded on only half of the days. From 10-25 September, 671 bird-days—over one-third of the total—were logged. The highest day totals were 59 on 28 August, 89 on 14th, 63 on 17th, 78 on 23 September, 83 on 5th and 147 on 10 October, a migration ‘wave’ day (see Purple Heron). Most flew south, including 660 recorded from LH.
1987: 944 bird-days (867 flew south), beginning of survey to 25 November; 329 flew south during 7-11 October, including 149 on 9th and 106 on 11th.
1988 (Ho): 186 bird-days, 9 September to 17 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 67 bird-days were logged from 8 October to 15 November (57 flew south). The highest day total was 40, all flying south, on 10 October.
1989: 1613 bird-days (1577 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; 1492 flew south on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, 376 bird-days, highest day total 35 on 1 October. From 23 October, 87 bird-days (one present, eight recorded flying north and 78 south), 24 October to 15 November. Highest day total 38, all flying south, on 24 October.

Purple Heron Ardea purpurea LT—common, September and October; ‘some 200 passed over the plain’ on 6 October 1911. H—not uncommon, 19 July to 14 October. COE—391 bird-days, 19 April to 1 June.
1986: 425 bird-days were logged from 23 August to 1 November; the passage period was nearly three weeks shorter than that of the Grey Heron. Numbers reached an initial peak over 11-14 September, when 87 bird-days were logged; 85 were recorded flying south on 19 September, and the highest day total was 186 (160 were recorded flying south, 26 were at Re) on 10 October, after which only four were seen. Most were recorded flying south, including 378 recorded from LH.
1987: 330 bird-days (295 flew south), 30 August to 8 November; 135 flew south on 9 October; only two birds after 18 October, one of which had a broken wing and was seen from 1-8 November.
1988 (Ho): 70 bird-days, 16 September to 10 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 68 were recorded flying south from the beginning of the survey to 10 November. The highest day total was 18 on 10 October.
1989: one at Re on 21 September; seven bird-days (six flew south), 8 October to 13 November.
1990: before 23 October, 157 bird-days, highest day total 25 on 22 September. Six were recorded flying south, 24 October to 4 November.

Grey Heron/Purple Heron Ardea cinerea/A. purpurea
1986: 402 Ardea herons were recorded, 20 August to 29 October. The maximum day totals were 101 on 30 September and 76 on 1 October. All but 27 were recorded from LH, and all but four flew south.
1987: 371 birds (370 flew south).
1988 (Ho): 59 birds.
1988 (Earthwatch): 38 recorded flying south.
1990: 196 were recorded, highest day total 115 on 25 September; all before 23 October.
[header=Spoonbills, Ibises, Storks]
White Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia COE—one on 10 April.
1989: two flew south on 15 October.
See also unidentified spoonbills.

Unidentified spoonbills Platalea spp. LT—a spoonbill flew south on 13 October 1912, and a White Spoonbill shot on 12 October 1913. WH—one spoonbill flew over SF on 5 July 1917; obtained specimen of White Spoonbill from elsewhere in Hebei; saw a Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor in Beijing on 5 May 1924. H—four spoonbills circled over SF on 22 October, and singles with cranes on 27 October and 10 November 1945. Information from Tianjin area indicated passage in late October and early November; three specimens, others seen, and hunters reported that they rarely saw spoonbills in small flocks of 8-12 flying in V-formation.
1990: seven were at SF on 21 October.

•(NT)Black-headed Ibis (White Ibis) Threskiornis melanocephalus LT—one on 5 October 1913. H—three flying west on 19 November 1943. COE—no records.
1987: one flew south on 30 October.
1989: one flew south on 15 October.

Black Stork Ciconia nigra LT—passes regularly; was informed it breeds among the high rocks in the mountains about 30 miles north of Qinhuangdao. H—common in autumn, 12 August to 11 November. COE—11 birds, 25 March to 17 April.
1986: 168 were recorded flying south, 10 September to 30 October. Only 11 were seen to 6 October, but during the next seven days 75 were seen, followed by six on 18th and 37—the maximum day total—on 20 October. All were recorded from LH, quite often passing well to the west.
1987: 133 bird-days (126 flew south), beginning of the survey to 8 November. Only ten bird-days—no more than three in a day—to the end of September. Main passage was from around mid-October to 8 November; the highest day totals were 12 on 20th and 30 October and 21 on 4 November.
1988 (Ho): 36 bird-days, 6 October to 18 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 43 were recorded flying south from 11 October to 13 November. The highest day total was 15 on 21 October; there were late records of four on 11th and three on 13 November.
1989: 52 flew south, 15 October to 2 November; highest day total 21 on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, five bird-days. From 23 October, 13 were recorded flying south: 11 on 9 November and singles on 24 October and 10 November.

•(EN)Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana LT—four birds probably this species, 20 November 1910. H—seen between 22 October and 16 November (possibly on 28 November). Autumn totals of 1000-1500 (1942), 687-887 (1943), at least 1466 (1944) and 1000-4000 (1945). At least 1000 birds recorded on three days: 1000-1500 over 12-13 November 1942 (arrived in the evening at Grassy Sands, remained because of fog) and 1000-4000 on 12 November 1945. On the latter date, ‘one huge flock after another passed GS in the course of four hours in the morning without settling for long, or some perhaps not settling at all.’ COE—12 birds, mostly in the latter half of March.
1986: about 2729 individuals were recorded flying south, from 11 October to 16 November. The main passage was from 28 October to 10 November; 2395 birds (87.8 percent of the total) were recorded during this period. The maximum day total was 742 (360, 380 and two) on 6 November; 359 on 29 October and 567 on 3 November were other notable day totals.
1987: 1531 were recorded flying south from 15 October to 21 November; highest day totals 300 on 30 October, 368 on 2nd and 430 on 10 November.
1988 (Ho): 1796 birds flew south, mid-October to 17 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 1789 birds were recorded flying south from 11 October to 13 November. Additionally, one was at YH on 20 October. Six flew south before 26 October, when the main passage began. The highest day total was 1104 birds on 13 November; 156 on 29 October, 200 on 11th and 136 on 12 November were other notable tallies.
1989: 1113 flew south, 15 October to 13 November; 1101 flew south from 27 October to 11 November; highest day totals 329 on 7th and 480 (flocks of 469 and 11) on 11 November.
1990: before 23 October, one was recorded on 15 October. After 23 October, 848 were recorded flying south from 2-14 November; the highest day totals were 135 on 9th, 234 on 10th and 240 (one flock) on 11 November.
[header=Swans, Geese, Shelducks and Ducks]
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus LT—one in market, January 1912. H—no certain records. COE—four on 25 March. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon, much decreasing in recent years.
1986: one seen from LH on 14 November, passing south with a party of Red-crowned Cranes.
1988 (Ho), 1988 (Earthwatch): one flew north and five flew south on 8th and 14 November, respectively.

•(VU)Swan Goose Anser cygnoides LT—one record, 10 October 1912. H—two autumn records; 3 September and 3 October 1945. COE—51 birds, 22-31 March. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon, gradually decreasing in recent years.
1986: one flew north on 15 October.
1988 (Ho): one flew northeast on 2 October.
1989: two flew south on 24 September.

Bean Goose Anser fabalis LT—geese (mainly this species) pass from the end of August or beginning of September to 5th or 6 November. H—more common in autumn than in spring, 21 August to 23 November; totals of 3913 (1942), 10,044 (1943), 2438 (1944) and 3196 (1945). WH—28 August not unusually early for geese to appear. COE—2607 birds, 15-31 March.
1986: 1904 birds were recorded flying south from 17 October to 16 November. The first record, of eight birds, was not followed until 26 October, when main passage began, lasting until 10 November. During this period, 1848 birds were recorded. The great majority of birds were seen migrating past LH. The maximum day total was 590 on 29 October (when three flocks were heard passing over the town after dusk); 395 on 4th and 342 on 7 November were other notable tallies.
1987: 3588 flew south from 16 October to 16 November; 2150 flew south on 29 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 366 birds, 1 October to 15 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 420 birds were recorded flying south, and two flying north, from 28 October to 15 November. The highest day total was 105 on 10 November.
1989: 903 bird-days (900 flew south), 9 October to 13 November; highest day totals 259 on 5th and 128 on 6 November.
1990: 178 were recorded flying south, 24 October to 15 November; highest day total 68 on 5 November. A bird with near white wing-tips was seen on 9 November.
See also unidentified geese.

Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons LT—no autumn records. H—two autumn records; 28th and 31 October. COE—314 birds, 23 March to 9 April.
1986: three were seen from LH, flying south, on 15 October.
1987: 155 birds which were probably this species were recorded flying south on 29 October.

•(VU)Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus LT—one shot out of a flock 14 April 1911; a flock of small geese seen passing over on 6 April 1913 ‘was probably composed of this species’.
1987: 40 geese which flew south on 29 October appeared to be around half the size of other geese they were with, and thus were considered to be this species.

Greylag Goose Anser anser LT—two specimens obtained from elsewhere in Hebei. H—one certain record, 19 October 1944. COE—nine birds, 22 March to 6 April. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: two were recorded: one flew south over SF on 8 October and another was seen from LH, flying south, on 7 November.

Unidentified geese Anser spp.
1986: 761 unidentified geese were recorded flying south, 10 October to 14 November. Flocks of 35 on 10th, 41 on 14th and 40 on 21 October were the only records until the 26th; 642 were then recorded during the main period of Bean Goose migration making it likely that most of the unidentified geese were this species. Most were seen from LH; the maximum day total was 281 on 29 October, the same date as the peak of Bean Goose migration.
1987: 692 were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): at least 157 were recorded.
1988 (Earthwatch): 247 were recorded flying south.
1989: 530 bird-days (519 flew south, 11 flew north), 15 October to 12 November; 357 flew south on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, 185 were recorded flying south on 14 October. From 23 October, 439 were recorded flying south, 3-11 November; highest day totals 206 on 7th and 74 on 9 November.

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea LT—winters on the plain, passes from the latter half of October. H—winter visitor; earliest appearance 30 September, and 10 November the latest of the dates of first appearance in four years. COE—228 bird-days, 22 March to 10 May.
1986: 389 bird-days were logged from 14 October to 16 November. Main passage was from 25 October to 1 November, when 273 bird-days were logged. The maximum day total was 92 on 27 October. Most flew south, including 277 recorded from LH (51 were recorded flying north past LH).
1987: 478 bird-days (438 were recorded flying south), 16 October to 29 November; highest day totals 78 on 21st and 83 on 29 October, flying south.
1988 (Ho): 80 bird-days, 1 October to 17 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 161 birds were recorded flying south, and seven flying north, from 14 October to 16 November. The highest day count was 39 birds on 2 November.
1989: 498 bird-days (453 flew south, 44 flew north), 8 October to 16 November; 376 bird-days from 3-10 November. The highest day totals were 79 (recorded from LH, flying south) on 4th and 77 (recorded from LH, 67 flew south, eight flew north) on 8 November.
1990: 231 were recorded flying south, and 69 flying north, 27 October to 15 November; highest day total 81 (80 south, one north) on 1 November.

Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna LT—passes from mid-September to mid-October. H—more common in autumn than in spring, from 19 July to 21 November. COE—735 bird-days, 21 March to 19 May.
1986: 228 bird-days were logged from 26 August to 11 November, though the species was seen on only 17 dates. There were 102 bird-days from 26 August to 1 September (there were 50 at SF on 27 August), and 91 over 24-31 October (including 59 recorded from SF, flying south, on 25th). SF was much the favoured locality; other records were from LH, YH and Se.
1987: 306 bird-days (243 were recorded flying south), 28 August to 16 November; the highest day totals were 35 (flying south) on 28 August, 47 (flying south) on 9 September and 69 (63 flying south, six present) on 11 October; 16 were present on 17 November.
1988 (Ho): 28 bird-days, 9-18 September.
1989: two were at SF on 10 October and 5 November, and ten flew south on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, 59 bird-days were logged, highest day total 35 on 1 September. There were three records from this date: one at SF on 23 October, 25 at SF on 3rd and five flying south past Fishhook Point on 4 November.

•(NT)Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata LT—one record, 17 April 1913. H—a flock of 17 on 11 October was the only autumn record. COE—22-23 individuals, 9 April to 3 May. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: fairly common, declining in recent years.
1986: 23 bird-days were logged from 9 September to 19 October. It appears that 13-14 individuals were involved—a little over half as many as in spring 1985. Records were as follows: a female or immature at LH on 9th, 13th and 17th, one at Re on 28 September, two at Re on 7th, three at LH on 7th and 8th, one at SF on 10th, two at LH over 12th-15th, one at LH on 18th and three at Re on 19 October.
1987: 11 bird-days (three birds?), 18 September to 18 October; two birds were seen on five days.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, first half of October.
1989: a pair on the sea off Temple Beach on 11 October.
1990: before 23 October, 47 bird-days; highest counts flocks of 18 on 8th and 16 on 17 October, overflying LH (heading northeast). From 23 October, two records: a pair at Re on 23 October and one at LH on 2 November.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope LT—not common; one shot in October. H—30-40 birds on 6 November 1943. WH—rare migrant in October. COE—143 bird-days, 1 April to 23 May.
1986: between 33 and 35 individuals were recorded, as follows: at SF, three on 24 September, and five on 9th and two on 10 October, and 25 at ER on 27 October.
1987: 24 bird-days (12 flew south), 16 September to 6 November.
1989: 55 bird-days, 8-24 October; 33 flew south on 15th and 20 flew south on 24 October.
1990: 14 were recorded flying south: six on 31 October and eight on 1 November.

Falcated Teal Anas falcata LT—extremely abundant during the latter half of September, remaining during October and occasionally until November. H—only one autumn record, 23 September. COE—355 bird-days, 21 March to 31 May.
1986: 32 bird-days, 25 August to 16 October. Only seen on 11 dates: at Re, singles on 25th and 27 August, nine on 14th, two on 21st, four on 27th, five on 29 September and one on 7 October; also one seen passing LH on 30 September, six at SF on 14 October and two at YH on 16 October.
1987: 21 bird-days (ten were recorded flying south), beginning of survey to 25 October.
1988 (Ho): 24 bird-days, 10 September to 7 October.
1989: 14 were at Re on 15 October.
1990: 306 bird-days, highest day totals 39 on 15th, 71 on 22nd and 45 on 29 September; all before 23 October, and mainly recorded at Re.

Gadwall Anas strepera LT—one shot on 28 September. H—two autumn records: 11 October (some) and 12 October (a female shot). WH—rare winter resident. COE—184 bird-days, 18 March to 28 May.
1986: 241 bird-days were logged from 29 September to 14 November. Only recorded on six days: four at Re on 29 September, 222 at SF on 27 October (large duck influx on this day), two at Re on 28th, one at ER on 30th and 11 south past King’s Point on 31 October, and one south past LH on 14 November.
1987: two flew south on 18th and six flew south on 29 October.
1988 (Ho): six bird-days, 13-15 October.
1989: one at Re on 16 September.
1990: three bird-days, before 23 October.

•(VU)Baikal Teal Anas formosa LT—extremely abundant on passage, beginning of September to the end of October. H—only one in autumn, but dense flocks seen spring 1944. WH—erratic spring migrant in Hebei. COE—five birds on 20 March. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: fairly common during migration and in winter.
1986: the only record was of a female or immature at Re on 15 September, with a small flock of Common and Falcated Teal.
1987: singles on 13th and 16 September.
1988 (Ho): one flew south, 14 September.
1989: no records.
1990: two records of a female (same bird?), at Re on 25th and SF on 30 August.
The few recent records contrast markedly with earlier observations, especially by La Touche, substantiating reports that there has been a marked decline in the population of this species.

Common Teal Anas crecca LT—very abundant, beginning of September to the end of October. Wilder (1924)—in great numbers, 12 September 1924. H—less common in autumn than in spring, 16 September to 25 October. COE—1175 bird-days, 19 March to 20 May.
1986: a total of 2161 bird-days was logged. The great majority were seen on 27 October, when ca. 2140 were on the sea off SF in the afternoon, after a cold front had arrived. Otherwise, only single figures recorded on seven days: one from LH on 1 September; at Re, one on 15th, two on 21st, four on 27th, two on 29 September and seven on 6 October, also one at SF/ER over 30-31 October.
1987: 51 bird-days, 21 September to 1 November.
1988 (Ho): 14 bird-days, 7-12 October.
1989: at Re, three on 16th and four on 21 September; 72 bird-days, 8 October to 1 November; 45 flew south on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, 32 bird-days, highest day total 15 on 29 September. From 23 October, one was at SF on 3rd and three flew south on 8 November.

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos LT—one of the commonest ducks, 20 September to the beginning of November. H—also found the Mallard one of the commonest ducks; largest autumn numbers in October. COE—1492 bird-days, 15 March to 23 May.
1986: 247 bird-days, 1 September to 18 November. Seventeen bird-days were logged over seven dates to 27 September, on which date 32 birds were recorded. The species was then recorded on a further seven dates to, and including, 26 October, totalling 21 bird-days. There was a minor peak in passage from 27 October to 2 November, when 71 bird-days were logged. Subsequently, 107 bird-days were logged over four dates, with the maximum day total of 89 on 13 November, on the sea off Temple Beach. About half the records refer to birds resting on the sea off Temple Beach and Se; 65 were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 383 bird-days, 6 October to 24 November; 134 were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): at least 218 bird-days, 3 October to 17 November.
1989: at Re, two on 16th and one on 21 September; 558 bird-days (30 flew south), 10 October to 16 November; highest day totals 71 on 4th and 70 on 8 November.
1990: before 23 October, 87 bird-days. From 23 October, 241 bird-days, 25 October to 16 November (eight flew south); other than 50 at SF on 25 October, highest counts were of birds on sea off Temple Beach—50 on 30 October, 75 on 7th and at least 40 on 9 November.
Neither La Touche nor Hemmingsen notes the species as being less common in autumn than in spring, which our studies suggest is the case.

Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha LT—passes from beginning of September to November; probably breeds. H—common, 30 July to 25th or 30 October; typically up to ten birds but occasionally parties of 30-40. COE—1522 bird-days, 20 March to 1 May.
1986: 1070 bird-days, 23 August to 20 November. There were two peaks of passage: 17-24 September, when 248 bird-days were logged, and 27 October to 2 November, with 236 bird-days. A rather prolonged period of significant passage linked these periods—i.e. from 17 September to 2 November. The highest day totals were 90 (flying south) on 17th, 62 (39 recorded from LH, flying south; 23 at SF/Re) on 18 September, 48 (one recorded from LH, flying south, 45 at SF, two at Re) on 10th, 48 (45 at SF, two at Se and one recorded from LH, flying south) on 10th, 53 (51 at SF, two flying south over Se) on 27th and 137 (114 at SF, 23 at YH) on 31 October. After 29 on 2nd, numbers in November did not exceed three. The Re/SF area attracted most birds; there were also 315 recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 1237 bird-days, beginning of survey to 19 November; 270 were recorded flying south; highest day total 112 (50 present, 62 flying south) on 29 October; 30 were present on 19 November.
1988 (Ho): 267 bird-days, 9 September to 18 November.
1989: 205 bird-days (five flew south), 8 October to 10 November; highest day total 26 on 24 October.
1990: before 23 October, 97 bird-days. After 23 October, 80 bird-days (11 flew south), 25 October to 16 November; highest day totals 22 (at SF) on 31 October and 21 (11 at SF, ten flying south) on 8 November.

Northern Pintail Anas acuta LT—perhaps the most abundant of the larger ducks, mid-September to the end of October. Wilder (1924b)—in great numbers, 12 September 1924. H—noticeably less common than in spring; six dates in one autumn, 19 July and 23 September to 11 October. COE—167 bird-days, 16 March to 30 April. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: abundant on passage.
1986: 35 or 36 bird-days were logged from seven dates over 1-27 September. The first record was of 18 flying south past LH, and the remaining 17/18 birds were recorded during the last ten days of the passage period at SF, YH and Re.
1987: one on 25 September and 137 flew south over 26-29 October (including 133 on 29th).
1988 (Ho): 40 bird-days, 4-10 October; flock of 38 on 10th.
1989: 51 bird-days, 15 October to 5 November; 45 flew south on 15 October.
1990: before 23 October, 53 bird-days, highest day total 43 on 29 September. From 23 October, 55 flew south on 8 November.
The recent studies do not support La Touche’s assertion that this may be the most abundant of the larger ducks.

Garganey Anas querquedula LT—appears during September. H—noted on three dates in autumn 1944: 18 July, 18th and 21 August. COE—2096 bird-days, 23 March to 1 May; the commonest of the ducks.
1986: 147 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 10 October. The highest count was 42 on 1 September. The first record was of a family party of two adults and seven juveniles at Re, suggesting that they had bred in the area. Certain passage was first noted on 28 August, when nine flew south over the sea off Se. This marked the beginning of the main passage period, which lasted until 6 September and during which 86 bird-days were logged, and the highest day total was 42 (37 recorded flying south, five were at Re) on 1 September. A further 43 bird-days were logged during 10-21 September and the next record was the last—four at Re on 10 October. The Re/SF area was the favoured locality. The passage was earlier than that of the Common Teal, in agreement with the findings of La Touche and Hemmingsen, and roughly mirroring the occurrences in spring, when the Common Teal tends to pass before the Garganey.
1987: 31 bird-days, beginning of survey to 25 September; late bird (with a damaged wing?) on 8th and 9 November.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 9-24 September.
1989: 17 at Re on 16 September.
1990: 67 bird-days, highest day total 24 on 2 September, all before 23 October.

Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata LT—passes commonly during the first 15 days of October; doubtless also in September. H—four dates in one autumn, 21 August to 10 November. COE—112 bird-days, 23 March to 31 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: common during migration.
1986: 103 were seen. Records were as follows: two at Re on 10 October, 90 off ER on 27 October (there was a large duck influx on this day), one north past LH on 28 October, nine south on 6 November, and one at YH on 8 November.
1987: one flew south on 28th and 28 flew south on 29 October.
1989: one at Re on 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, three bird-days. From 23 October, 12 flew south on 8 November.

Common Pochard Aythya clypeata LT, H—no records. WH—evidently usually scarce or rare in Hebei, but in spring 1924 ‘common on the lakes in Peking, at Peitaiho [Beidaihe] (H) [Hubbard], and at the Summer Palace, since April 3rd, until June 11 at least.’ COE—165 bird-days, 18 March to 20 April.
1987: 41 bird-days, 23 October to 27 November; maximum 15 on 21 November.
1989: ten flew south on 25 October.
1990: five were at SF on 29 October and seven flew south on 4 November.

•(VU)Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri LT—extremely abundant during the latter half of September and beginning of October, remaining until the end of October. H—four possibly seen, 30 April 1943. COE—ca. 20 individuals, 23 March to 1 June; a pair remained at Re to the end of the survey period.
1986: recorded at Re on three dates: one on 1st, ten on 5th and one on 10 October.
1988 (Ho): five birds flew south and one was seen at Re on 24 September.
1990: two records at SF: six on 2nd and one on 14 October.
Only La Touche has found this species extremely abundant in the area—more recent work has found it to be rather scarce, suggesting a substantial decline since early this century.

•(VU)Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca LT, H, COE—no records; La Touche originally misidentified autumn Baer’s Pochards as this species. Ch—migrates through central China and winters along the middle region of the Yangzi valley. Mentions record from Beijing market in March, by Wilder, but asserts that the bird was probably a Baer’s Pochard.
1986: a male was at Re on 5 October and another bird, probably an eclipse male, was on the sea off ER on 27 October.
1987: one bird at Re, 21-28 October.

Baer’s Pochard/Ferruginous Duck Aythya baeri/A. nyroca
1988 (Ho): two at Re 10 October.
1989: one at Re on 8 October.
1990: one flew south on 8 November.

Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula LT—common in October. H—one spring and one autumn record; the latter of two birds on 21 October 1943. COE—no records. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: rather uncommon in breeding localities, very rare elsewhere.
1986: three birds were seen: a first-winter male at YH on 31 October and two females or immatures at the same locality on 8 November.
1987: 15 bird-days, 15 October to 9 November; possibly only six birds, four of which flew south.
1990: six flew south on 8 November.

Greater Scaup Aythya marila LT—several on 16 April 1916. H—a female over 10-11 April 1944. COE—a female on 3 April. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: a female or immature was at YH on 31 October.
1987: six present, 21-28 October.

Harlequin Histrionicus histrionicus LT, H—no records. Ch—recorded at three localities, in Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Shandong; status: very rare. COE—immature male present from 6 April to 5 May.
1989: a female or immature was on the sea off LP on 4 November.

Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis LT—specimens of immature male on 5th and female on 6 April 1916. H—one record in spring; two to four on three dates in November 1943. COE—no records.
1987: at YH: two on 31 October and 1 November, singles on 6th and 9th, and two on 15 November.
1990: a male flew south past SF on 16 October.

Velvet Scoter (White-winged Scoter) Melanitta fusca stejnegeri LT—in market, February and December 1913; a number just caught 14 April 1913. H—on 15 dates in autumn, 4 October to 29 November. Only one spring record. COE—one on 3 April, two on 11 May. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei coast; status: very rare.
1986: 93 bird-days, 23 August to 20 November. The species was thus recorded throughout the survey period and, with the Spot-billed Duck, exhibited the most extended occurrence of the ducks. However, the Velvet Scoter was only recorded on 15 dates, with the pattern as follows: 11 flew south on 23 August, three males flew north on 18 September, 15 bird-days logged 6-10 October, 31 bird-days 19-23 October, 21 bird-days 27 October to 2 November, six bird-days 9-12 November, and six flew north on 20 November. The maximum day count—14 birds—was recorded on 20th and 27 October. Most records were from the eastern part of Beidaihe—of birds on or flying over the sea off SF, ER and King’s Point.
1987: 260 bird-days, 29 August to 15 November; 93 birds were recorded flying south; five bird-days to 5 October, after which more regular; highest day total 65 (60 present, five flying south) on 11 October; the only records in November were five on 4th and four (flying south) on 15th.
1988 (Ho): 13 birds seen on 13 October.
1989: 255 bird-days, 8 October to 9 November; highest day total 124 on 17 October (111 flying past TH, 13 recorded from LP).
1990: before 23 October, 44 bird-days. From 23 October, ten bird-days (three present, seven flying south over sea), 30 October to 8 November.
Cheng’s assertion that this species is very rare is evidently wrong; perhaps it was based on numbers of specimens—which are less readily collected than for most ducks.

Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula LT—common from the beginning of October. H—very common during the winter, earliest autumn dates in four years lay between 22nd and 26th or 30 October. COE—1554 bird-days, 15 March to 8 May.
1986: 644 bird-days, 27 October to 20 November, though the species was only recorded on ten days. The main passage was over 8-13 November, when 498 bird-days were logged. The highest day counts were 212 on 8th, 180 on 12th and 140 on 17 November. About two-thirds of the records were of birds on the sea off YH, with most of the remainder off Se.
1987: 1525 bird-days, 19 October to 30 November (end of the survey); 112 birds were recorded flying south; highest day total 325 on 22 November.
1988 (Ho): 84 bird-days, 16-19 November.
1989: 335 bird-days (72 flew south), 16 October to 16 November; 53 passed south off LP on 8 November; 134 were at YH on 16 November.
1990: 171 bird-days (13 flew south), 3-16 November; highest day total 77 (seven at SF, 70 at YH) on 16 November.

Smew Mergus albellus LT—’may be seen in October and at the beginning of November … probably winters.’ H—two autumn records, 13th and 21 November. COE—31 bird-days, 17-21 March. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei; status: fairly common during the winter.
1986: 56 bird-days were logged from 16 October to 17 November; recorded on only eight days. Fourteen bird-days were logged from four days in October. During November, one on 2nd was followed by 23 on 8th, eight on 9th and ten on 17th. Most were seen at YH, and the number of individuals involved was probably very close to the bird-day total.
1987: 42 bird-days, 17 October to 20 November; ten flew south on 20 November.
1988 (Ho): 17 bird-days, 5-18 November.
1989: 41 bird-days, 26 October to 16 November; 15 flew south on 5 November and 17 were at YH the following day.
1990: three were at Re on 16 November.

Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator LT—no records. H—three records in November 1943; less common than in spring. COE—372 bird-days, 16 March to 13 May.
1986: 218 bird-days were logged from 30 September to 19 November. There were 27 bird-days from seven dates to 25 October. The main passage began on 27 October and lasted until 2 November: during this period, 120 bird-days were logged, and the maximum day count—47 birds—was made on 27 October. There were 56 bird-days over 8-13 November, followed by 15 on 18th and the last record of one flying north the following day. Just over half the records were of birds on the sea east of Lighthouse Point, and most of the remainder were from Se and the sea off YH. Five were seen from LH.
1987: 388 bird-days, 11 October to 29 November; 126 birds were recorded flying south; the highest day totals were 43 (12 present, 31 flying south) on 26th, 38 (13 present, 25 flying south) on 31 October and 48 (37 present, 11 flying south) on 6 November.
1988 (Ho): 12 bird-days, 14 October to 17 November.
1989: 184 bird-days (39 flew south), 10 October to 11 November; highest day total 36 on 4 November.
1990: before 23 October, eight bird-days. From 23 October, 134 bird-days (32 flew south), 29 October to 16 November; highest day totals 48 (22 at SF, 26 flying south offshore) on 31 October, 20 (at SF) on 3rd and 25 (at YH) on 15 November.

Goosander (Common Merganser) Mergus merganser LT—noted in late autumn and often seen in the market in winter. H—recorded on 12 or 18 dates in three autumns, 22 October to 23 November. COE—151 bird-days, 17 March to 21 May.
1986: 667 bird-days were logged from 30 October to 19 November. Significant passage began on 4 November, when 29 were seen from LH, flying south. The next day, 78 were seen from LH; 142 bird-days were logged over 10-11 November. The period of main passage was during 14-16 November, when 378 birds were recorded from LH, flying south, and the maximum day count—187 birds—was made on 15th. In all, 639 birds were recorded migrating south past LH; the remainder of the records were of birds on, or passing over, the sea.
1987: 526 bird-days, 31 October to 20 November; 489 birds were recorded flying south; highest day totals 126 (flying south) on 10th and 200 (flying south) on 11 November.
1988 (Ho): 485 bird-days, 7-18 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 615 birds were recorded flying south from 25 October to 16 November. The main passage was from 9-16 November, when 605 birds were recorded. The highest day total was 122 birds on 15 November.
1989: 1149 flew south, 31 October to 16 November; highest day totals 401 on 10th and 431 on 13 November.
1990: 761 bird-days (758 were recorded flying south), 31 October to 16 November; highest counts of birds flying south 367 on 9th and 258 on 10 November—all seen from LH.

Unidentified ducks
1986: 2249 unidentified ducks were recorded from 22 August to 18 November, with the highest count 313 on 27 October (there was a large influx of ducks on this day). The numbers recorded tended to increase during the survey period, and peaked at 857 bird-days during 26 October to 6 November.
1987: 3838 bird-days.
1988 (Ho): 331 bird-days.
1989: notable records were 200 flying south on 15 October and 100 flying south on 5 November.
1990: 214 bird-days for unidentified dabbling ducks, before 23 October.

Unidentified teal Anas spp.
1986: 95 bird-days were logged from 24 September to 10 November. There were 57 bird-days over 24-26 September, 14 bird-days from 28 September to 10 October and 24 bird-days after 18 October.
1987: 61 bird-days.
[header=Raptors]
Osprey Pandion haliaeetus LT—occasionally seen on migration; September, October and one on 13 November. H—more common in autumn than in spring, with birds tending to linger more; 3 September to 28 October, possibly one on 8 November. COE—24 individuals, 13 April to 13 May.
1986: 66 bird-days, 21 August to 18 October. About 32 individuals were probably involved, including two juveniles which remained in the area for quite lengthy periods. Three birds were seen over 21-22 August; there were no further records until 12 September, when the first of the temporary residents arrived, remaining until 9 October. The second long-stayer was seen every day from 8-18 October, and was the only bird seen after 11 October. The main passage was from 14-23 September, when 18 were recorded flying south, and the highest day total was four (three flying south, one present) on 20th and 23rd.
1987: 21 recorded flying south, 15 September to 20 October; 15 during 15-28 September.
1988 (Ho): 15 bird-days, 12 September to 15 October.
1989: two present on 21st, singles flew south on 24 September and 5 October, one present on 6 October; 15 bird-days, 8-27 October; records mostly of birds lingering in the area; no more than two birds in a day.
1990: 14 bird-days, highest day total three on 10 September; all before 23 October.

Crested Honey-Buzzard (Oriental Honey-Buzzard) Pernis ptilorhynchus LT—on 16th and 20 September 1912 saw ‘large hawks flying overhead which I took to be Honey-Buzzards’; another, ‘which appeared to be the same’ on 16 September 1915. H—no records. COE—134 individuals, 13 April to 25 May, including 85 misidentified as Mountain Hawk-Eagles Spizaetus nipalensis.
1986: 433 birds were recorded flying south from 22 August to 3 November. All except three were seen from LH. Twenty-five were seen to 10 September and the highest day total—170 birds—was recorded on 12 September. Other notable day totals were 60 on 17th and 45 on 23 September. The only records in October were six on 10th, three on 11th and one on 12th; one flew south on 3 November.
1987: 448 were recorded flying south, 16 September to 30 October; 347 were recorded over 23-26 September (highest day totals 202—200 flying south and two which came in to roost—on 25th, and 87—86 flying south and one which came in to roost—on 26th).
1988 (Ho): 70 bird-days, 13 September to 12 October; highest day total 19 on 20 September.
1989: seven flew south on 18th, 18 flew south on 27 September, four flew south on 5 October; nine bird-days (three birds?), 8 October to 6 November; one seen at LH on seven dates from 25 October to 6 November.
1990: before 23 October, 711 bird-days, highest day total 648 (flying south) on 17 September. From 23 October, one recorded from LH, flying south, on 24 October.

Black-eared Kite (Black Kite) Milvus (migrans) lineatus LT—’an important migration … especially in the autumn. … The autumn passage goes on throughout September and until the middle of October. Numbers of these birds are taken at this season by the hawk-catchers. A few summer here in suitable spots.’ WH—occurs in Hebei in every month of the year, least common in June, July and August. ‘At other times they act as scavengers in the cities and gather in great "rookeries" in the palace grounds for winter nights, going to the country through the day to hunt.’ Sh—’This is a permanent resident. Mollendorf’s (1877) statement that it was the commonest bird of prey seems to be not quite true nowadays. It is also a migrant which passes the plain from the end of February to April and from September to October.’ H—common migrant, largest numbers last part of September and first part of October, e.g. ‘in numbers passing over LH from E to W 15.IX, 10.X 1944.’ Some dates throughout the summer months. Latest date 19 November. COE—67 birds, 18 March to 17 May.
1986: 74 birds were recorded from 20 August to 20 October, including 67 recorded from LH, flying south. Six were seen in August, and four more to 6 September. The main passage was during 8-13 September, when 33 were seen and there was the highest day total—15 on 12th; 19 were seen during the rest of the month and a further 12 in October.
1987: 68 bird-days, 24 August to 5 November; highest day total 18 on 26 September. All but two were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): 28 bird-days, 13 September to 15 October.
1989: 13 flew south, 18 September to 5 October, highest day total eight on 18 September; 14 flew south, 13-16 October.
1990: before 23 October, 43 bird-days, highest day totals nine on 17 September and 18 on 6 October. From 23 October, two were recorded from LH, flying south, on 24 October.
As in spring 1985, the records hardly suggest an ‘important migration’ of the species, as found by La Touche; nor did we see the species passing over LH ‘in numbers’ as had Hemmingsen, or any birds which appeared to be summer residents. It appears that there has been a considerable decline in the species over the past forty years, a decline which has been far sharper than that noted by Shaw, from late last century to around 1936.

•(NT)White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla LT—common spring and autumn migrant; may winter in the area (specimens 6th or 7 March and from near Great Wall towards the middle of December). ‘The local hawk-catchers use this Eagle as a decoy, pegging the bird down at their nets. The owner of two of these birds told me he fed them in summer on fish and in winter on puppy dogs!’ Sh—passing migrant, rare. H—three sea-eagles with white tails seen and assumed to be this species: 4th, 6th and 23 November 1943. COE—an immature flew north on 31 March.
1986: 15 were recorded from LH, flying south, from 26 October to 18 November. Five were seen from 26-29 October; five more during the first ten days of November, and a further five were seen from 11-19 November, including three—the highest day total—on 14th. Of 14 birds aged, two were considered to be juveniles, one was immature, two were first- or second-year birds, one was second-year, two were second- or third-year, one was sub-adult and five were adults.
1987: five flew south, 30 October to 21 November.
1988 (Ho): nine flew south, 2-17 November.
1989: four flew south: one on 26 October and three on 13 November.
1990: four were recorded from LH, flying south: three on 9th and one on 10 November. All were juvenile or immature.

•(NT)Eurasian Black Vulture (Cinereous Vulture) Aegypius monachus LT, H, COE—no records. WH—cite five specimens obtained in Hebei. Sh—appears to be a rather rare resident in the mountainous region of northern and northwestern parts of the province.
1987: seven flew south on 12th and two flew south on 18 November; additionally, 16 were seen at Shanhaiguan one day in late November.
1990: a party of six was recorded from LH on 9 November. They apparently came in from the west, and headed off northwards.

Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus LT, H, COE—no records. Sh, Ch—twice recorded by David in Beijing municipality.
1987—one flew south on 21 October.
1989: one flew south on 15 October.
William S. Clark (in litt. to MDW) saw one flying south on 6 October 1991.

Hen Harrier (Northern Harrier) Circus cyaneus LT—passes end of September and during October. A few winter in the vicinity. H—seen on 9-12 dates in four autumns, 14 September to 12 November; suggests that smaller peak in numbers of unidentified harriers towards the end of October was derived mainly from this species. COE—53 birds, 20 March to 28 April.
1986: 304 birds were recorded, 21 August to 19 November; 287 were recorded from LH, flying south. The first record—a pair flying south—was exceptionally early, and was not followed until 29 September. There was a first peak in passage over 7-13 October, when 51 were seen, and a second peak from 21 October to 13 November, when 195 were seen; the highest day totals were 30 on 10th, 40 on 26 October and 19 on 3 November.
1987: 273 bird-days, 25 September to 22 November; all but six were recorded flying south; highest day total 33 on 20 October.
1988 (Ho): 130 bird-days, 20 September to 17 November; two on 20 September not followed until three on 2 October; highest day totals 12 on 11th and 16 on 27 October.
1989: 128 bird-days (124 flew south), 8 October to 14 November; highest day total 17 on 31 October and 1 November.
1990: before 23 October, 32 bird-days, highest day total six on 8 October. From 23 October, 26 were recorded from LH, flying south, 24 October to 14 November; highest day total seven on 9 November.

Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos LT—by far the most abundant of the harriers, passing from the end of August to mid-October. H—recorded on 21 dates in four autumns, 11 August to 12 October. Mainly only certainly identified adult males; noted that peak occurrences of these, 25 August to 18 September, coincided with peak occurrences of unidentified harriers. Regarding unidentified harriers, notes that ‘I have never seen so many as on 4.IX 1944 when they almost swarmed, with tendency to WSW movement’. COE—504 birds, 1 April to 25 May.
1986: 14,534 birds were recorded flying south from 20 August to 7 October. Occurrences in seven-day periods were as follows: 589 from 20-26 August, 2151 from 27 August to 2 September, 2662 from 3-9 September, 7521 from 10-16 September, 1360 from 17-23 September, 295 from 24-30 September and eight from 1-7 October. Over half the total—7371 birds—passed during 10-14 September. The highest day totals were 868 on 7th, 2874 on 10th, 2957 on 12th and 703 on 13 September.
1987: 2240 bird-days, 21 August to 22 October; all but 11 were recorded flying south; highest day totals 338 on 1st and 260 on 7 September; only records after 8 October were one with a damaged wing on 20th and 21st and two flying south on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): 4738 bird-days, 8 September to 13 October; highest day total 2033 on 12 September.
1989: 274 flew south, 14 September to 5 October, highest day total 196 on 18 September; two immature harriers at YH on 9 October may have been this species.
1990: 1917 bird-days, highest day totals 556 on 4th, 238 on 13th and 193 on 14 September; all before 23 October.
Rather unusually for a raptor, passed in numbers during early morning.

Eastern Marsh-Harrier (Striped Harrier) Circus (aeruginosus) spilonotus LT—extremely abundant during September until well into October. H—one specimen (14 September); no other certain records (due to problems in identification). COE—258 birds, 5 April to 20 May.
1986: 576 bird-days were recorded from 20 August to 9 November. The number of individuals will have been close to this figure, as most flew south, including 531 recorded from LH. The main passage was from 17-30 September, when 254 bird-days were logged; the highest day totals were 25 on 14th, 58 on 20th, 26 on 22nd, 30 on 23rd and 48 on 24 September. After 11 October, passage was reduced to a trickle—there were 22 birds seen, with records on 13 days.
1987: 489 bird-days, 28 August to 31 October; all but 13 were recorded flying south; highest day totals 58 on 3rd and 43 on 9th and 12 October.
1988 (Ho): 173 bird-days, 8 September to 1 November; highest day total 35 on 21 September.
1989: 15 flew south, 18 September to 5 October; 52 bird-days (47 flew south), 9-29 October; highest counts 13 south on 14th and 15 October.
1990: 308 bird-days, highest day totals 52 on 17th and 60 on 21 September; all before 23 October.

Unidentified harriers Circus spp.
1986: 161 unidentified harriers were recorded from 20 August to 16 October, mainly from LH. The highest day count was 22 on 30 September.
1987: 252 bird-days.
1988 (Ho): 29 bird-days.
1990: 67 were recorded before 23 October.

Chinese Goshawk (Grey Frog-Hawk) Accipiter soloensis LT—on several occasions in autumn saw small hawks passing which may have been this species. H—no records. Sh—passing migrant. COE—six birds, 25 March to 5 May. Ch—occasionally seen in Hebei and Shandong provinces.
1986: eight birds were recorded from LH, flying south. Singles were seen on 22nd, 25th and 30 August, 1st and 9 September, and three on 7 September.
1987: five flew south, 28 August to 10 October.
1988 (Ho): singles flew south on 16 September and 1 October.
1990: one on 10 September.

Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis LT—appears to be common in September and the first half of October. H—four records, all in autumn; 27 September to 15 November. ‘On LH this hawk is netted in autumn (esp. Oct.) with smaller birds, e.g. Sand Larks (Asian Short-toed Larks), as bait, and used to catch quail or similarly sized birds by throwing the hawk after them.’ COE—only certain records were of 10-11 males, 1-20 May. Possibly some were misidentified as Eurasian Sparrowhawks, and others included in the total of 38 unidentified sparrowhawks.
1986: 725 birds were recorded flying south (including 711 recorded from LH), 29 August to 28 October. The actual number was probably higher than this due to initial confusion over identification. Thus, totals of 156 and 88 unidentified sparrowhawks on 9th and 10 September, respectively, could largely derive from Japanese Sparrowhawks, which were just beginning to pass in numbers. Only seven birds were recorded to 9 September, but there were 56 on 10th, and including these 545 were recorded flying south to 23 September, with peak day totals of 152 on 12th and 86 on 23 September. During the rest of September, 76 were seen; a further 79 were recorded during the first 11 days of October. Numbers then dropped off sharply, with only nine recorded from six dates during the rest of the passage period. An albinotic bird was seen on 16 September.
1987: 747 bird-days, 21 August to 18 October; all but 45 were recorded flying south; highest day totals 93 on 28 August and 162 on 21 September.
1988 (Ho): 588 bird-days, 8 September to 12 October; highest day totals 71 on 15th, 224 on 20th, 55 on 22nd and 47 on 24 September.
1989: five bird-days, 24-28 September; 13 bird-days, 11-28 October.
1990: 482 bird-days, highest day totals 124 on 10th and 79 on 17 September; all before 23 October.

Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus LT—passes from mid-September to the end of November. WH—sometimes abundant on migration (some confusion with Japanese Sparrowhawks?), September and October or November. A good many stay on the plain in the winter, and a few apparently summer. H—one specimen only, about 22 September. COE—140 bird-days, 16 March to 20 May. Some may have been misidentified Japanese Sparrowhawks, especially late in the passage period.
1986: 470 birds, 26 August to 20 November; most were recorded flying south, including 410 recorded from LH. Thirty-eight were recorded during 26-31 August (some perhaps misidentified Japanese Sparrowhawks), and seven during 1-7 September; then an increase in passage, with 75 during 8-15 September, but this was not sustained, with 55 passing during the remainder of the month; 118 bird-days were logged to 25 October, and passage peaked from 26 October to 6 November—105 birds were recorded during this period. Passage decreased after this, with around half of the 59 bird-days logged until 20 November deriving from birds which were temporarily resident at LH, where up to four ‘local birds’ were seen in a day. This period may have marked the arrival of winter visitors. The highest day totals were 27 on 12 September, 29 on 26th and 40 on 28 October.
1987: 571 bird-days, 6 September to 28 November; 492 were recorded flying south; highest day totals were 42 on 25th and 41 on 26 September, 33 on 12th, 35 on 14th, 31 on 17th and 30 on 19 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 531 bird-days, 11 September to 18 November; highest day totals 198 on 20 September and 38 on 5 October.
1989: four on 18 September and three on 5 October; 320 bird-days (268 flew south), 7 October to 14 November; highest day totals 52 and 42, flying south, on 16th and 31 October, respectively.
1990: before 23 October, 396 bird-days, highest day totals 63 on 17 September, 48 on 6th and 39 on 15 October. From 23 October, 80 bird-days (33 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 15 November; highest count of birds flying south ten on 25 October; lingering birds often noted, especially at LH, where the highest number was five on 14 November (passage had declined by this date—only two birds were recorded flying south from 10 November).

Japanese Sparrowhawk/Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis/A. nisus H—noted on 26 dates in four autumns, 8 September to 15 November; autumn maximum of smaller unidentified birds of prey (falcons/small hawks) in the last part of September and in October.
1986: 609 bird-days, 20 August to 29 October; 581 were recorded from LH, flying south. Most of the records were early in the survey, when confusion was being experienced over the separation of the two species: there were 551 to 14 September, with peak counts of 156 on 9th, 88 on 10th, 66 on 12th and 64 on 13 September. We found the Japanese Sparrowhawk to be much the commoner of the two species during this period, so many of these unidentified birds may well have been this species. Once we had eliminated most of the confusion, numbers dropped sharply: only 31 were recorded in the latter half of September and 25 in the first half of October.
1988 (Ho): 44 bird-days.
1990: 83 bird-days, highest day total 51 on 17 September, all before 23 October.

Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis LT—fresh specimens in the market: 21 March 1913, 23 January 1916. Sh—passing migrant, some remain in winter. WH—’This is the commonest hunting falcon (sic)’; few field records, May and October. H—’This species is the most sought-after bird by the hawk-trappers in October. The bait used was pigeons or Red-legged [Amur] Falcons. … All the birds I saw at PTH [Beidaihe] were young ones.’ Two specimens, 16 October. COE—168 birds passed north, others were temporarily resident in the area, especially early in the season; 16 March to 18 May.
1986: 368 were recorded, 20 August to 19 November; most flew south, including 352 recorded from LH. Twenty-five were recorded in August (when it is possible some were misidentified Japanese Sparrowhawks which, though far smaller, have a very similar silhouette), and 57 in September, all after 9th. The main passage was from 8-17 October, when 155 individuals were seen; 62 were recorded during the rest of the month, and there were 48 in November, including two which remained in the area from the 16th. The highest day totals were 56 on 10 October and 42 the following day.
1987: 386 bird-days, 10 September to 19 November; all but 15 were recorded flying south; highest day totals 97 on 14th and 30 on 30 October. A juvenile of the northern race A. g. albidus was seen in mid-October; another juvenile also had very pale underparts, but the upperparts were as for birds of the typical race (schvedowi).
1988 (Ho): 209 bird-days, 13 September to 13 November; highest day totals 22 on 20 September, 28 on 11th and 24 on 24 October.
1989: eight bird-days, 18 September to 5 October; 137 bird-days (129 flew south), 7 October to 16 November; highest day totals 26 and 52 flying south on 15th and 16 October, respectively.
1990: before 23 October, 182 bird-days, highest day totals 44 on 17 September, 30 on 6th and 22 on 15 October. From 23 October, 34 bird-days (29 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 14 November; highest count of birds flying south eight on 25 October; only record after 10 November was one at LH on 14th.

Unidentified sparrowhawks/goshawks Accipiter spp.
1986: 266 unidentified Accipiters were recorded from 20 August to 18 November all from LH, flying south. There were 175 during 29 August to 14 September, with peak counts of 40 on 29 August and 30 on 10 September. During October 45 birds were recorded and in November only eight.
1987: 348 bird-days.
1989: 96 flew south, 15 September to 6 October.

Common Buzzard Buteo buteo LT—passes abundantly in September and October, probably also in November. H—noted on six dates, 5-26 October; also several on 5 December 1945, believed to be migrating down the coast on account of the very severe winter. COE—approximately 85 birds, 16 March to 10 May.
1986: 1119 bird-days were logged from 16 September to 19 November; around 1075 individuals were probably involved; 1050 were seen from LH, flying south. Fourteen birds were seen during September, and passage picked up at the beginning of October. The main passage was from 8 October to 1 November, when 966 bird-days were logged, with peak counts of 321 on 10th, 190 on 11th and 98 on 26 October. During November, 127 bird-days were logged, though no records after 15th refer to birds flying south: up to four ‘local birds’ were seen at LH during this month, with two present on the 19th, the last day of the survey.
1987: 3162 bird-days, 15 September to 27 November; all but 86 were recorded flying south, 2462 bird-days were logged from 12-21 October; highest day totals 585 on 12th, 992 on 14th, 211 on 17th and 224 on 20 October.
1988 (Ho): 1861 bird-days, 20 September to 18 November; at least 1100 flew south on 11 October.
1989: three flew south on 27 September and 92 over 5-6 October; 1534 bird-days (1496 flew south), 8 October to 14 November; highest day totals 427 and 740 flying south on 15th and 16 October, respectively.
1990: before 23 October, 2210 bird-days, highest day totals 1048 on 6th, 470 on 8th and 459 on 9 October. From 23 October, 253 bird-days (233 were recorded flying south), 24 October to 15 November; highest counts of birds flying south 44 on 24th and 76 on 25 October, 35 on 6th and 20 on 9 November; after latter date, only one recorded flying south and up to two birds present.
The records suggest this species is common in autumn, not abundant as reported by La Touche.

Upland Buzzard Buteo hemilasius LT—passes in October and November; ‘I have seen examples used as decoys by the hawk-trappers, who capture many during times of passage.’ H—singles seen a few times.
1986: 415 birds were recorded from 16 October to 19 November; 411 were recorded from LH, flying south. Sixteen were noted to 24 October, and 255 from this date to 5 November, which proved to be the main passage period; 69 birds were recorded during both 7-13 November and the last week of the study. The highest day total was 102 on 28 October; other notable day totals were 42 on 26 October, 39 on 3rd and 43 on 14 November.
1987: 66 bird-days; an early bird on 22 September, otherwise 20 October to 18 November; all but four were recorded flying south; highest day totals 17 on 30 October, 16 on 4th and 19 on 18 November.
1988 (Ho): 101 bird-days, 24 October to 18 November.
1989: 46 bird-days (45 flew south), 17 October to 14 November; highest day totals 16 on 31 October and 11 on 13 November.
1990: before 23 October, 37 bird-days, first noted 1 October. From 23 October, 350 bird-days (347 were recorded flying south, and one north), 24 October to 16 November; highest counts of birds flying south 27 on 25 October, 44 on 6th, 190 on 9th and 45 on 10 November, after which date eight recorded flying south and singles present on two dates.

Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus La Touche (1925-1934)—perhaps saw two. H—singles on 6th and 7 November 1943 (different birds). COE—one, 25 April.
1986: 47 birds were recorded flying south, from 10 October to 18 November. Total of 12 birds from nine dates in October; further three during 3-6 November. The peak of passage was over 8-11 November, when 20 birds were recorded; 12 were logged over 14-18 November. The peak counts were nine on 8 November and six the following day. All but four were seen from LH.
1987: 25 birds recorded flying south, 15 October to 17 November; highest day total four on 4 November.
1988 (Ho): 11 bird-days, 18 October to 16 November; highest day total five on 27 October.
1989: 25 bird-days (24 flew south), 8 October to 10 November; highest day total 13 flying south on 31 October.
1990: before 23 October, two birds were recorded. After 23 October, nine were recorded flying south, 24 October to 11 November; highest day total four on 9 November.

Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus LT—seen by collectors on 2nd and 7 May 1913; one bird believed to be this species seen on 20 September 1914. H—no records. Wilder and Hubbard (1926)—taken at the Eastern Tombs on 21 June 1923, and seen at Western Tombs in July 1924. COE—19 flew north, 30 April to 21 May.
1987: one flew south, 25 September.
1988 (Ho): three on 5th and one on 11 October.
1990: one on 6 October.

Unidentified buzzards Buteo spp./Pernis ptilorhyncus
1986: 62 flew south from 24 September to 15 November; 32 were logged from 26 October to 5 November.
1987: 54 bird-days.

•(VU)Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga LT—one bought from hawk-catcher 6 October 1912, one seen 12 October 1913; shot, but failed to secure, what was presumably a third example on 16 September 1915. WH—’Judging from the numbers of specimens brought in, this is the most common of our eagles.’ Considered it probably resident in the mountains, and likely to be among the eagles which pass over Beijing too high for identification in spring and autumn. Wilder (1924)—specimen obtained late August or early September 1924. Sh—passing migrant, rare. H—one specimen, 26 October, and others possibly seen on three dates, 22 October to 11 November. COE—four birds, 29 April to 21 May.
1986: 15 birds recorded from LH, flying south, from 10 October to 8 November. Five were seen on 10 October and three the following day, a total of six was recorded on five days from 16-28 October, and one was seen on 8 November. Of 12 birds aged, seven were considered to be juveniles, two were immature and three were adult.
1987: 14 bird-days (11 individuals), 3 October to 5 November.
1988 (Ho): six bird-days (five individuals), 6 October to 2 November.
1989: five flew south: singles on 5th, 15th and 22 October and two on 31 October.
1990: before 23 October, ten bird-days: six on 6th and singles on 7th, 13th, 15th and 18 October. From 23 October, one flew south on 9 November.

Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis LT—specimen ‘of what I take to be the Eastern Steppe Eagle, from Chihfeng in outer Chihli [Hebei]’. WH—’In August 1917, what we supposed to be this eagle were very common in Mongolia and a few were taken at Kalgan.’ Sh—passing migrant. H, COE--no records.
1986: two were recorded on 28 October and one on 8 November. All were seen from LH, flying south.
1987: an eagle which was considered to be this species flew south on 3 October.
1988 (Ho): one flew south on 3 November.
1989: five flew south: singles on 5th, 15th and 22 October and two on 28th and 31 October.
1990: an immature flew south on 9 November.

•(VU)Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca LT, H, COE—no records. Sh—passing migrant. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: ten birds were recorded from LH, flying south: two immatures on 15 September, an adult on 26 September, a second-year bird on 10 October and six juveniles on 28 October.
1987: three flew south, 20 October to 4 November.
1988 (Ho): five flew south, 11 October to 12 November.
1989: singles flew south on 16th, 25th and 28 October.
1990: before 23 October, one was seen on 18th and 19 October (same bird). From 23 October, single immatures flew south on 6th and 9 November.

Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos LT—specimens 21 November 1915 and 11th or 12 April 1916. ‘It is doubtless a resident in this part of the province.’ (yet Shaw considered it a rare passage migrant). H—one record, 17 February 1945. COE—no records. Ch—resident in Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: four to six birds were recorded at LH. Records of single juveniles flying south on 21st, north on 23rd and south on 26 October may refer to just one individual. The other records were all of birds passing south: an immature on 28th and an adult on 29 October, and a juvenile on 5 November.
1987: five flew south, 18 October to 2 November.
1988 (Ho): one flew south on 13 November.
1989: one flew south on 8 November.
1990: no records.

Unidentified eagles Aquila sp.
1986: five unidentified Aquila eagles were recorded from LH, flying south: one on 11th, three on 25th and one on 26 October.
1987: singles on 22nd and 30 October.
1988 (Ho): a Steppe or Imperial Eagle was seen on 9 November.
1990: one on 10 October.

Unidentified medium/large raptors
1986: 143 unidentified medium/large raptors were recorded from 20 August to 14 November. The highest count was 14 on 14 September.

•(VU)Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni LT—no records. Sh—summer visitor. H—a pair, 7 April 1943. COE—no records. Ch—breeds in northern and central parts of Hebei.
1986: 108 bird-days, 20 August to 19 November; all but four were recorded from LH, flying south. Five were recorded to 16 September, when the main passage period began, with 61 birds seen during the second half of the month and the highest day count—23 birds—on 22 September. Ten were seen in the first half of October and 15 in the second half, and there were a further 15 in November. It is possible that, especially late in the period, some birds were misidentified Eurasian Kestrels.
1987: 14 were recorded flying south, 7 September to 3 October; highest day total seven on 25 September.
1988 (Ho): 20 bird-days, 21 September to 11 October.
1989: singles flew south on 28 October and 9 November.
1990: five were recorded before 23 October.

Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus LT—passes in September and October. H—more common in autumn than in spring, 31 August to 16 November. Suggested that some autumn records may refer to lingering individuals, e.g. one to four seen or heard almost daily around eastern Beidaihe from September to 16 November 1944. COE—52 bird-days, 16 March to 6 May. Ch—the commonest falcon in China.
1986: 294 bird-days, 20 August to 18 November; 208 were recorded from LH, flying south. Initial records were of up to three ‘resident’ birds in the LH/Re area and certain passage was only noted from 8 September, with the ensuing week seeing 26 birds flying south. The main passage period roughly coincided with that of the Lesser Kestrel, and during 17-26 September about 64 individuals were seen. Subsequent numbers kept relatively constant, with 14-19 birds noted each week until the beginning of November. There were nine in each of the first two weeks of November, but after the 14th only two or three ‘local birds’ remained. The total number of birds seen flying south was about 157; the highest day count was 19 on 21 September.
1987: 277 bird-days, 20 August to 18 November; 204 were recorded flying south; highest day total 18 on 19 October.
1988 (Ho): 115 bird-days, 11 September to 18 November; highest day total 21 on 20 September; other than eight on 1st, those in November were mainly lingering in the area.
1989: 16 bird-days, 15 September to 5 October; 54 bird-days (40 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; 22 bird-days from 11-17 October; highest day total seven on 16 October (six flew south).
1990: before 23 October, 59 bird-days, highest day total 12 on 17 September. From 23 October, 26 bird-days (11 were recorded flying south), 24 October to 15 November. Day totals did not exceed three, and records were fairly evenly scattered during the period.
Unidentified kestrels Falco naumanni/tinnunculus
1986: 55 unidentified kestrels were recorded from 8 September to 3 November. Around half were seen during the latter half of September, coinciding with the peak passage periods of the two kestrel species.
1987: 57 bird-days, 8 September to 4 November.
1988 (Ho): at least two.
1990: four were recorded before 23 October.

Amur Falcon Falco amurensis LT—very common summer visitor, seen until the end of October. On 16 September 1915, saw ‘numbers travelling along the seashore, hovering and feeding on the dunes as they passed by.’ H—a few seen throughout the summer; in the beginning of September of the years 1942-1944, larger parties, evidently on migration, were seen, and ‘at the end of September flocks of 10, 20, 30, in which only a few adult males were seen, moved slowly in migration direction over GS or SF, often stopping to hover and hunt.’ COE—34 birds, 22 April to 20 May.
1986: 465 bird-days, 21 August to 26 October, involving about 450 individuals; 436 were recorded from LH, flying south. To the end of the first week of September 33 bird-days were logged. Significant passage then began, and lasted until 21 October. The main sustained passage period lasted for three weeks, from 16 September to 6 October, with 72-79 bird-days logged each week, and the highest day count—41 birds—on 23 September. The week from 14-20 October saw heavier passage, with 83 bird-days logged and a high count of 40 birds on 18th.
1987: 892 bird-days, 28 August to 29 October; highest day totals 243 on 3rd, 50 on 16th and 106 on 17 October. All but 13 were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): 343 bird-days, 9 September to 24 October; highest day total 116 on 11 October (99 passed before 07h00, presumably reflecting continuation of passage from the previous day, when at least 79 had been seen).
1989: three flew south on 26 September and 57 over 5-6 October; 152 bird-days (128 flew south), 7-29 October; 40 flew south on 12 October.
1990: 95 bird-days, highest day totals 17 on 6th and 33 on 15 October; all before 23 October.

Merlin Falco columbarius LT—passes from September to December; some probably winter in the district. H—two certain records: one which chased starlings, a Hoopoe and a Black-billed Magpie on 4 April 1944, and one chasing waders on 20 October 1945. ‘Probably quite a number of the unidentified small falcons from late autumn (to) April and beg. May were Merlins judging from their small size.’ COE—six or seven birds, 24 March to 23 April.
1986: 18 birds were recorded flying south from 7 October to 14 November. Seen on 14 days. In October, eight were recorded during 7th-15th, four during 19th-21st and five during 25th-28th. The last record was of one flying south on 14 November. All were seen from LH and the highest day total was three on 10 October.
1987: 34 bird-days, 20 September to 11 November; all but three were recorded flying south; 27 bird-days were logged during 8-31 October; highest day total four on 31 October.
1988 (Ho): 14 bird-days, 20 September to 17 November.
1989: nine bird-days (eight flew south), 15 October to 12 November.
1990: before 23 October, six bird-days. After 23 October, singles on five dates (four were recorded flying south), 6-14 November.

Northern Hobby Falco subbuteo LT—a few noted in late May 1913. H—singles on two dates in May and one in June. COE—at least 150 birds, 26 April to 26 May. Ch—breeds in Hebei; status: fairly common in summer.
1986: 185 bird-days, 20 August to 17 October; 143 were recorded from LH, flying south. The main passage period was two or three weeks earlier than that of the Amur Falcon—during the first half of September, when 70 bird-days were logged. Forty-two bird-days were logged in August, and 47 in the second half of September. More birds were noted lingering in the area than was the case with the Amur Falcon, indicating a more leisurely withdrawal—37 bird-days were derived from ‘local birds’, which stayed overnight or for a few days (LH was a favourite locality for these birds). The highest day totals were 11 (flying south) on 21 August, 13 (ten flying south, three present) on 6th, and 13 (12 flying south, one present) on 8 September.
1987: 261 bird-days, 20 August to 22 October; 146 were recorded flying south; highest day totals ten on 18th, 14 on 21 September, and 11 on 3 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 161 bird-days, 9 September to 8 October; highest day totals 26 on 18th and 23 on 20 September; a ‘considerable number’ of birds seen were lingering at LH and Re (e.g. 16 over Re at dusk on 18 September, ‘taking the opportunity to catch a few insects while looking for a suitable roost’).
1989: 24 bird-days (five flew south); other than a late bird on 28 October, all were recorded from 8-16 October.
1990: 159 bird-days, highest day totals ten on 10th and 15th, and at least 15 on 17 September; all before 23 October.

Amur Falcon/Northern Hobby Falco amurensis/F. subbuteo
1986: the difficulty in separating immatures of the two species, which are structurally even more similar than are the adults, led to 901 unidentified birds being logged; 885 were recorded from LH, flying south. Peak numbers were during 8-15 September, when 524 birds were recorded; the following week saw 216 birds recorded and there were 89 in the week after that. Otherwise, weekly tallies were 30 or less. The highest counts were 121 on 8th, 169 on 12th and 67 on 17 September.
1987: 34 bird-days.
1988 (Ho): two birds, 2 October.

Saker Falcon Falco cherrug LT—passes in October and November. ‘A few of these Falcons are caught every year and are held in high esteem by Chinese falconers. They are used for hawking hares. Two birds are generally flown together.’ Sh—passing migrant, some remain in winter. WH—’This is not very common in the falcon market where it is much prized.’ H—unidentified large falcons seen on 20 dates in three autumns, 22 August to 16 November; some doubts as to whether some of them may have been Northern Hobbies. Notes that Wilder and Hubbard report the Saker Falcon more common than the Peregrine Falcon as far as collected specimens are concerned. COE—no records, though one of the ‘Peregrine Falcons’ was remarkably brown and may, in retrospect, have been this species. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: 17 birds were recorded from 31 August to 10 November, with records on 12 dates, mainly from LH. The first record was of an immature male at SF. In September, singles on 7th and 29th. In October, there were seven during 17th-29th; also seven in the first ten days of November. The highest day count was three on 26 October.
1987: 17 bird-days, 16 September to 22 November; 13 were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): 13 were recorded flying south, 14 September to 13 November; all singles except three heading south together on 2 November.
1989: 18 bird-days (16 flew south), 15 October to 4 November.
1990: before 23 October, one on 7 October. From 23 October, ten bird-days (six were recorded flying south), 24 October to 10 November; sightings of a male (small bird) at LH on four dates from 25 October to 1 November were assumed to be of the same individual.

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus LT—seen in summer, and well into November. ‘I have also seen this Falcon pegged out at the hawk-catcher’s nets, and it is valued for hawking purposes.’ Sh—passing migrant, rare. H—see Saker Falcon. COE—eight birds, at least one of which may—in retrospect—have been a misidentified Saker Falcon, 26 April to 9 May.
1986: single males were recorded from LH, flying south, on 15th, 18th and 22 September and 1 October.
1987: seven were recorded flying south, 16 September to 18 October.
1988 (Ho): six were recorded flying south, 20 September to 24 October.
1989: one flew south on 15 October.
1990: six bird-days (five individuals): two on 21st and one on 22 August, one on 7th and two on 15 October.

Unidentified falcons Falco spp.
1986: 54 unidentified falcons were recorded from 21 August to 18 November: eight in August, 16 in September, 19 in October and 11 in November.
1987: 54 were recorded flying south.
1990: two unidentified small falcons were recorded before 23 October, and an unidentified large falcon on 2 October.
[header=Partridges, pheasants and quail]
Chukar Alectoris chukar LT—breeds in mountains north of Qinhuangdao. H—no records; quotes 1924 note by Wilder—’the covey of Chukar partridge which used to add interest to the Lotus Hills has now been exterminated.’ COE—four on 15 April. Ch—resident in Hebei.
1986: three were seen on a disused, overgrown tennis court in the grounds of the Diplomatic Personnel Guest House at Se on 3 November.

Daurian Partridge Perdix dauuricae LT, H, COE—no records. WH—said to be common in the grassy hills, but only seen twice by Wilder, at the Western Hills.
1987: one was seen at TH on 27 September and 2 November.

Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica LT—very abundant during October and the early part of November; also passes August and September. H—seen throughout the autumn, mainly in October. COE—81 bird-days, 28 March to 27 May.
1986: 48 bird-days, 2 September to 31 October. Only three were seen to 17 September, after which passage began to pick up and 12 bird-days were logged to the end of the month. There was a minor peak in passage during 3-11 October, when 21 bird-days were logged; a further ten bird-days were logged during the second half of October; the highest day totals were four on 8th and seven (also, one dead) on 9 October. Records were distributed throughout the area, with YH and LH being slightly the favoured localities.
1987: 84 bird-days, 8 September to 9 November; highest day total ten on 23 October.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 11 September to 23 October.
1989: one on 25 September; 106 bird-days, 7 October to 5 November; 61 bird-days during 8-14 October; highest day totals ten (all at Re) on 8th, ten (eight at Re, singles at SF and TH) on 10th and 14 (six at LH, three at YH, two at Re, singles at TH, Study Gully and Lighthouse Point) on 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 17 bird-days, highest day total four on 2 October. From 23 October, four were at Re on 29 October.

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus LT—very abundant in the mountainous country north of Qinhuangdao, but does not occur commonly within 12 miles of the port. H, COE—no records.
1988 (Ho): in Re woods, one on 26 September and two on 17 October.

Yellow-legged Buttonquail Turnix tanki LT—very common migrant, last week of August to well into October. H—less common in autumn than in spring. Only three records: 24 September, 4th and 28 October. COE—17 bird-days, 10-27 May.
1986: 25 bird-days, 5 September to 13 October. There were singles on 5th and 6th, three on 15th and four over 21st-25th September; 16 bird-days were logged after 27 September (highest day total three on 28 September and 9 October). YH and Se were the favoured localities.
1987: 59 bird-days, 21 August to 28 October; highest day total five on 14 October.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 14 September to 17 October.
1989: 25 bird-days, 9-24 October; highest day total seven on 13 October; only two bird-days after 15 October.
1990: four records of single birds before 23 October.

Japanese Quail/Yellow-legged Buttonquail Coturnix japonica/Turnix tanki
1989: seen in small numbers from 20 September to early October; highest day total 26 on 26 September.
[header=Cranes]
Common Crane Grus grus LT—immense flocks of cranes, believed to be mainly this species, pass over during October. ‘On the 12th of October, 1915, I counted some 28 flocks passing from 4.30 P.M. to dark—there were from 40 to 70 birds in each flock. At 8 P.M. they were still passing. Thousands must have gone over that day.’ Wilder (1924a)—during visit 6-9 October 1924, cranes ‘of two or three, possibly four species. A fifth might well have been seen also. They were passing over in the early mornings and late afternoons in flocks of from six to one hundred.’ Included (at least) ‘two or three large flocks’ of cranes which were probably this species. But there is no mention of these birds under ‘Common Crane’ in Wilder and Hubbard (1924), while this reference includes more flocks of White-naped Cranes than does Wilder (1924a) (perhaps reflecting uncertainty over the identification of ‘grey cranes’ which were not seen very well). H—more common in autumn than in spring; main autumn passage mid-October to early November; totals of 3059 (1943), 4448 (1943), 4228 (1944) and 8404 (1945); peak days for cranes in these years were 25 October 1942 (over 800), 6 November 1943 (over 1000), 20 October 1944 (ca. 1600) and 3 November 1945 (ca. 3800). Extreme dates 17 September to 24 November. COE—4409 birds, 15 March to 7 May.
1986: 4428 birds were recorded from 7 October to 18 November. All but 79 were seen from LH; 4385 flew south, 43 flew north. Additionally, five flocks were heard passing over Se after sunset: one on 29 October and four on 5 November. The main passage was from 25 October to 10 November; 3690 birds were recorded during this period. The highest day count was 1263 on 5 November; other notable totals were 412 on 29 October, 680 on 1st and 485 on 6 November. Of 871 birds aged, 733 were adults, three (0.3 percent) were sub-adults and 135 (15.5 percent) were juveniles. An albinotic bird flew south on 29 October; its plumage was white where it would normally be grey; the flight feathers were dark, the legs and bill pink.
1987: 4678 were recorded flying south, 8 October to 21 November; 4139 were recorded between 1st and 15 November; highest day totals 675 on 10th, 1466 on 11th and 830 on 12 November.
1988 (Ho): 4040 were recorded, 14 October to 18 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 3766 were recorded from 15 October to 16 November; 3693 flew south, 73 flew north. The main passage was from 11-16 November, when 3331 were recorded and there was the highest day total—2578 birds on 14th. Of 278 birds aged, 227 were adults and 51 (18.3 percent) were juveniles.
1989: 3693 bird-days (3559 flew south, 80 flew north), 15 October to 14 November; highest day totals were 1125 on 4th, 447 on 5th, 458 on 9th and 447 on 10 November; flocks heard passing after dusk on two days (at around 18h30 on 31 October and at 19h30 on 9 November). Of 324 birds aged, 267 were adults and 57 (17.6 percent) were juveniles.
1990: before 23 October, 11 were recorded. After 23 October, 4177 were recorded flying south, and 122 north, 25 October to 16 November; highest totals of birds flying south were 194 on 2nd, 167 on 7th, 468 on 9th, 2695 on 10th, 387 on 11th and 146 on 14 November. Birds were still passing in numbers at dusk on 10th, and, judging by flocks heard, a considerable number passed after dark (these may well have included rarer cranes, which were also seen in numbers on this date). Of 61 birds aged, 52 were adults and nine (14.8 percent) were juveniles.
As discussed above, the autumn migration path tended to be over or near the eastern part of Beidaihe, which may at least partly account for Hemmingsen recording substantially more birds in autumn than in spring, when (at least in 1985) the birds tend to pass to the west of the town.
See also ‘unidentified cranes’.

•(CD)Hooded Crane Grus monacha LT—no records. Sh—seems to be very rare, passes in October. WH—see under ‘White-naped Crane’. H—155-185 birds over three autumns from 12 October to 7 November, plus about 115 more ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ Hooded Cranes. COE—309 birds, 25 March to 20 April; 257 passed on 2 April.
1986: 527 birds flew south from 11 October to 7 November. The first record, of a single bird, was not followed until 29 October. The main passage occurred over 5-7 November: 446 were recorded during this period, with 436 on 5 November. This marked concentration of passage into just one day was also a notable feature of the species’ occurrence in spring 1985. Of 309 birds aged, 257 were adults and 52 (16.8 percent) were juveniles.
1987: 45 were recorded flying south, 21 October to 16 November; highest day totals 15 on 5th and 11 on 9 November.
1988 (Ho): 92 were recorded, 29 October to 14 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 94 were recorded flying south from 29 October to 14 November. The highest day total was 68 birds on 14 November, coinciding with the peak numbers of Common and Red-crowned Cranes. None was aged.
1989: 115 flew south, 26 October to 10 November; 86 flew south during 2-7 November; highest day total 51 on 5 November. Of 30 birds aged, 24 were adults and six (20 percent) were juveniles.
1990: 452 were recorded flying south: 59 on 2nd, 328 on 10th, 56 on 11th and nine on 15 November. Of nine birds aged, seven were adults and two were juveniles.

Common x Hooded Crane hybrid
1987: one flew south on 12 November.
1989: one flew south on 23 October.

•(VU)Red-crowned Crane (Japanese Crane) Grus japonensis LT—only heard of two captured in seven years; records of flocks seen probably refer at least partly to the Siberian Crane as some described as having black primaries. H—considerably more common than in spring, from 22 October to 23 November; totals of six (1942), 151 (1943), 92 (1944) and 98 (1945). COE—244 birds, 15-31 March.
1986: 501 birds were recorded from 13 October to 19 November, mostly from LH, flying south. The main passage was from 5 November to the end of the survey; 423 birds were recorded during this period. The maximum day count was 180 on 7 November and the next highest 61 on 14th. Of 206 birds aged, 158 were adults, 45 (21.8 percent) were juveniles; two were considered to be second-winter and one sub-adult.
1987: 320 were recorded flying south from 12 October to 21 November; 174 were recorded from 7th to 13 November; highest day totals 53 on 10th, 55 on 12th and 44 on 13 November.
1988 (Ho): 281 were recorded from 25 October to 18 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 256 were recorded flying south from 25 October to 16 November. The highest day totals were 69 on 29 October and 107 on 14 November, the latter coinciding with the peak numbers of Common and Hooded Cranes. Of 149 birds aged, 133 were adults, six (4 percent) were juveniles or immatures and ten (6.7 percent) were juveniles.
1989: two flew south on 25 September; 630 flew south, 19 October to 14 November; highest day totals 119 on 4th, 121 on 6th, 90 on 7th and 110 on 10 November. Of 273 birds aged, 212 were adults and 61 (22.3 percent) were juveniles.
1990: before 23 October, 11 were recorded on 9 October. From 23 October, 542 were recorded flying south, 25 October to 14 November; highest day totals were 74 on 7th, 135 on 10th, 102 on 11th and 100 on 14 November. Of 99 birds aged, 74 were adults and 15 (15.1 percent) were juveniles.

•(VU)White-naped Crane Grus vipio LT—no records. Wilder (1924a) records a flock passing 6-9 October 1923 (exact date not specified); identified as this species by the snow white necks (‘easily visible in the sunlight, but probably in shadow would not be noticed, and the birds would be easily confused with the common grey crane.’), and so could have been Hooded Cranes (though these are less similar to Common Cranes). Wilder (1924b) notes that these may have been Hooded Cranes; ‘The specimens we have are all of this species.’ Confusingly, Wilder and Hubbard (1924) report ‘Oct. 8th and 9th, at Peitaiho [Beidaihe] flocks of from 20 to several hundreds were flying south.’; perhaps these include birds reported as probably Common Cranes in Wilder (1924a). H—46 birds very probably this species seen over three dates in four autumns, 25 October to 2 November, standing on Grassy Sands. COE—no records.
1986: 139 were recorded flying south and 13 flying north from 17 September to 6 November. The main passage was from 25-29 October, when 92 passed, including 19 on 21st and 63 on 25th. The early records were widely spaced: 17 September (two), 28 September (five) and 16-18 October (19). Of 29 birds aged, 22 were adults and seven (24 percent) were juveniles.
1987: recorded on three days—three birds on 19th, 53 on 20th and seven on 22 October; all flew south.
1988 (Ho): 46 were recorded from 14 October to 9 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 48 were recorded from 14 October to 11 November; 46 flew south, two flew north. The highest day total was 29 birds on 14 October. Four were aged, and were all adults.
1989: 17 bird-days (13 flew south, four flew north), 28 October to 10 November. Only two birds—both adults—were aged.
1990: before 23 October, three were recorded on 9th and 17 October. From 23 October, 63 were recorded flying south, 26 October to 11 November; highest day totals 32 (one flock) on 3rd and 19 on 11 November. None were aged.

•(EN)Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus LT—Specimen from Hsieh Chia Ying marshes, some 15 miles south of Beidaihe. At least some of his records under Red-crowned Crane refer to this species, judging by description of plumage (white with black wings, or black wing tips) and call (shrill ‘coo-kee’). Notable dates were 12 October and 2 November 1913 and 30 March 1915. La Touche evidently realised his error, as he later (1923) noted that the species passes in great numbers in October and November. Wilder (1924) recorded flocks of 100 with one grey crane (presumably Common) and 40 including six presumed Common Cranes passing south, 6-9 October 1923. Also notes that ‘the hunters at Ch’ang Li, a little further from the sea, report having shot these white cranes and found them good eating.’ H—autumn totals of 15 (1942), 227 (1943), 80 (1944) and 34 (1945), 12 October to 11 November.
1986: 192 birds were recorded flying south from 11 October to 10 November; the highest day totals were 49 on 29 October, 50 on 1st and 27 on 7 November. Of 155 birds aged, 121 were adults and 34 (22 percent) were juveniles.
1987: 143 were recorded flying south, 21 October to 12 November; highest day totals 26 on 5th, 43 on 7th and 19 on 12 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 344 birds were recorded flying south from 29 October to 12 November. The highest day totals were 208 on 29 October and 97 on 3 November. Of 312 birds aged, 286 were adults and 26 (8.3 percent) were juveniles. Only eight juveniles were amongst the 208 on 29 October (suggesting the adults seen were mainly failed breeders?); cf. two immatures and 15 juveniles on 3 November.
1989: 181 flew south, 7 October to 12 November; first record—of a party of eight birds—was not followed until 20 October; highest day totals were 77 on 4th and 33 on 6 November. Of 167 birds aged, 137 were adults and 30 (18 percent) were juveniles.
1990: 577 were recorded flying south, 26 October to 10 November; highest day totals 30 on 26 October, 389 on 2nd and 141 on 10 November. Of 321 birds aged, 271 were adults and 50 (18.5 percent) were juveniles.

Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo LT, H, COE—no records. Sh—no definite records, but assumed to pass. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: fairly common in its breeding range.
1986: 14 birds flew south: one on 7th, 12 on 14th and one on 15 November. Three birds were aged: two were adults and one was a juvenile.
1989: a grey crane in a flock of Common Cranes on 8 November appeared around half the size of the other birds in the flock, and may have been this species.

Unidentified cranes Grus spp.
1986: 1557 unidentified cranes were recorded from 1-18 November. Of these, seven were considered to be Common or Demoiselle, 260 were Common or White-naped and 478 were Common or Hooded (the latter were seen on 5 November, when both species were passing in numbers).
1987: 364 unidentified cranes were recorded; 15 were considered to be Common or White-naped Cranes.
1988 (Ho): 338 unidentified cranes were recorded.
1988 (Earthwatch): of 376 unidentified cranes recorded, 32 were considered to be Common or White-naped, and 261 were considered to be Common or Hooded.
1989: three Common or White-naped Cranes flew north on 1 November, and three unidentified grey cranes flew south on 5 November.
1990: 521 were recorded flying south, and four north, 24 October to 11 November; highest day total of birds flying south 391 on 10 November (mostly over sea, at dusk). It is likely that most were Common Cranes, and the remainder mainly Hooded or White-naped.
[header=Rails, Crakes, Coot and Bustards]
Water Rail Rallus aquaticus LT—shot immature bird on 21 September and half-grown bird on 28 Sepember, so must breed in the area. H, COE—no records.
1987: singles on 2 September and 6 October.
1990: singles (two individuals?) were at Re on 24th and 25 September and 1 October.

Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla LT—passes from the beginning of August to the last week in October; extremely abundant during autumn. Weigold et al. (1922-1924)—on 5 August, near Beidaihe, ‘about two dozen were in the single still damp, room-size reedbed.’ H—autumn numbers similar to those in spring; 11 August to 16 October. COE—98 bird-days, 14 May to 1 June.
1986: 16 bird-days were logged from 2 September to 9 October; it may be that 16 birds were involved. There were records on eight dates, and it appeared that the main passage was from mid-September to the first week of October. The first was one at Legation Gully; five more were seen at Re, and one at YH, from 14-30 September, and a further eight were at YH and one at Re over 3rd, 4th and 9 October, with the highest day total—six birds at YH—on 4th.
1987: 13 bird-days; two on 20 August, the remainder from 24 September to 6 October.
1988 (Ho): ten bird-days, other than late bird 5 November, 19 September to 15 October.
1989: singles at Re on 21 September and 13th and 14 October and TH on 26 September and 17 October.
1990: 13 bird-days, highest day total four on 3 October; all at Re and before 23 October.
The autumn surveys thus found the species less common than in spring 1985, in marked contrast to La Touche’s assertion that it is extremely abundant in autumn, and disagreeing with Hemmingsen’s near parity of spring and autumn records.

Ruddy Crake Porzana fusca LT, H—no records. COE—singles on three dates in late May.
1987: two birds which were thought to be this species were at Re on 14 October.
1990: singles were at Re on 1st, 22nd and 24 September.

•(VU)Asian Yellow Rail (Swinhoe’s Rail) Coturnicops exquisitus LT, H—no records. COE—singles on 20th and 27 May.
1987: singles on 28th and 29th and two on 30 September, one or two on 2nd and singles on 6th, 8th, 9th and 14 October. All at Re.
1990: singles were at Re on 2nd and 7 October.

Watercock Gallicrex cinerea LT—one specimen in spring and another probably seen on 27 August 1912. H—no records. WH (corr)—observed twice at Beidaihe in late June 1925; ‘it was probably breeding.’ COE—a pair, 28 May to 1 June.
1986: four birds were recorded: two juveniles at LH on 9th, one at Re on 26th and a male at Re on 30 September.
1987: singles on seven days, 11 September to 6 October.
1988 (Ho): eight bird-days, 21 September to 15 October.
1990: 20 bird-days, highest day totals three on 24th and 28 September, one overflew Diplomatic Personnel Guest House on 6 October; all before 23 October.

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus LT—summers in the marshes. H—no records, but reports that the species breeds near Beidaihe. COE—124 bird-days, 9 May to 1 June.
1986: 216 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 24 October. The species had evidently bred at Re, and early records referred to family parties at this locality, e.g. three broods were seen on 20 August. The maximum count was 40 at Re on 29 August; 39 were seen there two days later. Numbers then declined, and the highest count in September was 11 on 26th. Five occurred on two dates in early October, but after the 9th there were no records until singles on 19th and 24th. Most records were from Re, and there were a few from LH, YH and Legation Gully.
1987: 242 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 9 November. The only record after 28 October was one on 9 November; highest day totals were 20 on 20 August and 12 on 13 September.
1988 (Ho): 31 bird-days, 16 September to 13 October.
1989: one at Re on 8 October.
1990: before 23 October, 153 bird-days, highest day total 21 on 21 August. From 23 October, the only record was one at Re on 29 October.

Common Coot (Eurasian Coot) Fulica atra LT—extremely abundant during most years in September and October. WH—’Very common summer visitor, nesting in marshes on the plain.’ H—no records but reported by hunters. COE—24 bird-days, 9 May to 1 June. Ch—breeds in Hebei; status: fairly common.
1986: 59 bird-days were logged from 27 August to 8 October. All except three birds were seen at Re. The first record was of a pair with four young and about one-third of all records apparently involved family parties of from three to six birds, with the last such group seen on 29 September. From 26 September to the end of the passage 32 bird-days were logged, making this the period of main occurrence; day totals did not exceed six.
1987: 63 bird-days, 10 October to 21 November (only two birds seen in November); a flock of ca. 50 was on the sea on 29 October.
1989: one at Re on 13 October.
1990: seven bird-days, highest day total two on 15th and 30 September; all before 23 October.
It appears the Common Coot is now rather scarce, not ‘extremely abundant’ in autumn as reported by La Touche, or ‘Very common’ in summer as reported by Wilder and Hubbard. It may be that numbers had fallen by the 1940s, as Hemmingsen did not see this species at Beidaihe.

•(VU)Great Bustard Otis tarda LT—passes from October until about 10 November. ‘These Bustards fly in flocks which occasionally contain from 40 to 50 birds but, as a rule, 10 to 20 individuals is the usual number. … The natives shoot the Eastern Great Bustard on passage, by means of decoys, both in spring and autumn after the crops have been cut. [Notes that he has been told the birds are also taken with nets]. … The Chinwangtao [= Qinhuangdao] market is stocked with Bustards in spring and autumn, and in winter many birds are brought from inland. … Young birds are not bad eating, but old males are very rank in flavour.’ H—over four autumns, recorded on 17 dates in October and 31 in November. The largest flocks seen flying numbered up to ca. 60 birds; the largest numbers were ‘more or less scattered on the ground’ at Grassy Sands, e.g. 83 on 6 November 1942, 400-500 on 5th and 377 on 6 November 1943. On 16 November 1944 ‘numerous flocks migrated across GS mostly without settling, and those I counted on this occasion amounted to a total of 324 birds.’ Mentions hunting techniques as described by La Touche, also ‘On the vast plains (e.g. near Tangku) they are shot from motor-cars … but this sort of "sport" is not practicable at PTH [Beidaihe].’ COE—132 birds, 17 March to 23 April.
1986: 452 birds were recorded flying south, from 19 October to 18 November; 414 were recorded from LH. Twenty birds were seen during 19-22 October and 84 during 25-29 October. These, together with a further two on 31st, brought the October total to 106. The first eleven days of November brought 185 birds and 161 were recorded from 14th-18th, making this the period of most concentrated passage. The highest day totals were 71 on 10th and 63 on 17 November, and the largest flock numbered 26 birds. It seems likely that more birds passed after our departure.
1987: 203 were recorded flying south, 19 October to 24 November; the highest day totals were 26 on 21 October and 67 on 16 November.
1988 (Ho): 62 were recorded, 8 October to 18 November.
1988 (Earthwatch): 67 were recorded flying south from 27 October to 16 November. The highest day totals were 25 on 9th and 15 on 16 November.
1989: 308 flew south, 15 October to 14 November; highest day totals 66 on 4th and 41 on 9 November.
1990: 154 were recorded flying south, and five north, 24 October to 14 November; highest day totals 61 on 5th and 37 (32 south, five north) on 10 November.
It appears this species has declined over this century. Hemmingsen recorded more passing birds during a single afternoon than have been seen in all but one of the recent autumns, and one of the resting flocks he saw perhaps contained more birds than were seen in the best recent autumn.
[header=Shorebirds]
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus osculans LT—three spring records of one to two birds. Wilder (1925)—pairs noted at YH, June 1925. H—nine records in three autumns, 11 July to 3 September; highest count three birds on 31 August 1945. COE—57 bird-days, 23 March to 26 May.
1986: three on 20th, one on 28 August, one on 6 September; all at SF.
1987: two on 21st and one on 22 August, one on 1st and three on 7 September.
1988 (Ho): one on 8 September.
1989: one at YH on 6 November.
1990: one was present from 22 August to 6 September.

Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus LT—in autumn as early as 21 September and as late as 9 November. H—numbers seen varied from single ones or a few up to several hundreds, 23 September to 10 November; largest numbers during last part of October (and beginning November 1943). COE—4489 bird-days, 16 March to 3 May; over 4000 birds seen from LH during the second half of March.
1986: 1043 bird-days (962 flew south, including 822 recorded from LH), 28 August to 11 November. The only records to 12 September were eight on 28th and 15 on 30 August; more regular thereafter, though day totals did not exceed 39 until 15 October when 53 were recorded flying south. The peak passage was from 25 October to 1 November, which produced 570 bird-days and the highest day total—156 (all flying south) on 29 October; 107 were recorded flying south over 4-6 November, after which the only records were three on 7th and five on 11 November.
1987: 12,174 bird-days, 22 August to 8 November. Most of the total was recorded on 29 October, when ca. 10,500 flew south. The pattern of occurrence was otherwise similar to 1986: one on 19th and three which flew south on 22 August were not followed until 21 September, when five flew south; main passage during October, which produced 12,130 bird-days (all but 15 flew south) with other notable counts of birds flying south 525 on 7th, 225 on 20th and 280 on 21st; the only records in November were one on 1st, 30 on 4th, and one on 8th.
1988 (Ho): 4377 bird-days, 20 September to 5 November; highest day totals 1570 on 21st and 2010 on 26 October.
1989: 59 flew south on 20 September and 50 on 5 October; 1921 bird-days (1762 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; 410 flew south on 15th and 700 flew south on 23 October; the only record after 1 November was three birds—each with an injured leg—at YH on 16th.
1990: before 23 October, 114 bird-days. From 23 October, 1022 bird-days (993 were recorded flying south), 24 October to 9 November; highest totals of birds flying south 184 on 26 October and 777 on 1 November.

•(NT)Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus LT—extremely abundant, from the middle of August and throughout September; ‘Large flocks follow one another on suitable days, many of these settling for a time on the marshes or on the plain.’; seen as late as 10 October. H—recorded on seven dates in autumn from 25 August to 24 September; no more than 60 seen at a time (flying west over Grassy Sands); suggests that the large flocks seen by La Touche mainly pass to the north of Beidaihe, or he would have seen more of them. COE—118 bird-days, 22 March to 30 May.
1986: 5975 bird-days (at least 5419 were recorded flying south, including 4716 recorded from LH), 22 August to 25 October. Eight bird-days to 27 August, when 202 were recorded flying south; more regular thereafter, with peak passage during 10-27 September, which produced 5100 bird-days, and the highest day total—3504 (all flying south) on 23rd; after 29 September, when 56 were recorded flying south, day totals did not exceed seven.
1987: 2894 bird-days (2731 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 22 October; 577 (42 present, 535 flying south) on 15 September was the only day total above 50 to 21 September, from which date to 27 September 1653 flew south and the highest day total—773 (63 present, 710 flying south)—was logged on 27th; the highest subsequent day total was 65 (all flying south) on 7 October, after which only four bird-days were logged.
1988 (Ho): 2695 bird-days, 8 September to 14 October; 340 were recorded on 9 September and ca. 2600 during 13-24 September.
1989: 844 bird-days, 16-29 September, highest day total 354 flying south on 20th; subsequently, at Re, two on 13 October and one on 5 November.
1990: 7297 bird-days, highest day totals at least 1400 on 13th, at least 2360 on 22nd and 1345 on 24 September (mainly flying south); all before 23 October.

Grey Plover (Black-bellied Plover) Pluvialis squatarola LT—only autumn record was one on 19 October 1911. H—recorded on ca. 66 dates, 5 July to 23 November; often scattered over larger areas of SF ‘and the total number no doubt was often larger than 40.’; low numbers at beginning and end of the passage. COE—2370 bird-days, 29 March to 1 June.
1986: 515 bird-days, 20 August to 8 November. Peak numbers were early in the period—there were 291 bird-days to 2 September, and the highest day totals were 65 (20 at SF, 37 at YH, eight at TH) on 22nd and 57 (22 at SF, 25 at YH and ten at TH) on 25 August; 23 were at SF on 2 September, after which numbers at this locality were in single figures; the last SF record was two on 4 November, though there were 14 at the irregularly visited YH on 8th (other double figure counts here after the end of August were 11 on 16th and 13 on 31 October).
1987: 835 bird-days, 18 August to 15 November; recorded on most days to 9 November, with highest day totals 27 on 24th, 30 on 25 August, 25 on 10th and 26 on 30 September; still regularly in double figures in early November, though the only record after ten on 9th was two on 15th.
1988 (Ho): 1447 bird-days, 8 September to 19 November; highest day total was 105 on 24 September, ‘after which date the birds seemed very reluctant to move on’; and 27 were still present on 27 November.
1989: At SF, two on 20th and three on 21 September; two flew south on 29 October.
1990: before 23 October, 679 bird-days, highest day totals 32 on 10th, 40 on 29 September and 36 on 12 October. From 23 October, 29 bird-days, 23 October to 16 November; no more than five in a day, only records after 8 November were two at SF and three at YH on 16th.

Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva LT—rare at Qinhuangdao: only record was one shot on 1 October 1911, though believed seen passing in flocks at the end of August. H—14 autumn dates, 13 August to 21 October; much less common than the Grey Plover, with most records of one or two birds and high counts of 30, 31 and 60; numbers on first dates were greater than later in the autumn. COE—1445 bird-days, 30 March to 24 May; over 900 recorded 5-9 May.
1986: 125 bird-days, 23 August to 4 November; recorded on three dates in August (highest count was four at SF on 25th), three dates in the first two weeks of September (no more than two in a day), then more regular in the second half of September—99 bird-days were logged from 15th to 30th (68 were recorded flying south) and the highest total was 59 (50 recorded from LH, flying south, nine at SF) on 24th; two flew south on 5th and two were at SF on 7 October, after which the only records were of singles at SF on nine dates from 8 October to 4 November and one flying south on 17 October.
1987: 301 bird-days (114 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 1 November; 47 bird-days (33 were recorded flying south; highest day total 18—16 flying south, two present—on 20th) from 18th to 30 August; up to four birds recorded on six dates in the first two weeks of September, after which recorded on most dates to 24 October, with high day totals of 18 (one present, 17 flying south) on 16 September, 18 (present) on 2nd and 16 (present) on 5 October. The only records after 24th were nine flying south and one present on 29th and 35 flying south on 30 October, and one present on 1 November.
1988 (Ho): 439 bird-days, 9 September to 15 October; highest day total 42 on 16 September; visible migration mainly noted in the second and third weeks of September.
1989: three were at YH on 9 October.
1990: before 23 October, 68 bird-days, highest day totals seven on 20th and eight on 25 September. From 23 October, four records at SF: one on 23rd, two on 29th and 30 October, and one on 8 November.

Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula LT, H—no records. WH—records ‘from the coast’, 20 July and perhaps 31 August 1916, and 31 July 1919. COE—one on 15 April. Holt (1989)—one at Re on 30 April 1989. Not listed in Cheng (1987), but Meyer de Schauensee (1984) describes this species as a straggler to northeast China.
1986: one was at SF on 18 September.

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius LT—breeds commonly near Qinhuangdao, ‘on the stony reaches of the Shih Ho.’ H—no doubt breeds at Beidaihe; last autumn date 9 October; much less common at the usual localities in August. COE—24 March to the end of the survey period; 429 bird-days to 13 May, when passage had largely ceased; bred at TH and probably also at YH and Re.
1986: 81 bird-days, 20 August to 3 October; two to four recorded on three dates to 25 August; the highest day total was 15 (ten at SF, two at Re, and three flying south) on 27 August, there were ten seen the next day, but only three on 29th, after which the highest day total was five on 10th and 21 September.
1987: 166 bird-days, 19 August to 4 October; the highest day totals were 39 (37 flying south, two present) on 20th, 52 (17 flying south, 35 present) on 21st and 14 (13 flying south, one present) on 30 August, after which the only day total in double figures was 13 (six flying south, seven present) on 9 September, and counts were mostly from one to four.
1988 (Ho): 16 bird-days, 8 September to 27 October; highest day total four on 3 October, after which the only record was one at SF on 27 October.
1989: one to three frequently at SF from 16 September to early October; singles were at YH on 11th and at Re on 13 October.
1990: 81 bird-days, highest day totals 12 on 31 August and 36 on 1 September; all before 23 October.

Kentish Plover (Snowy Plover) Charadrius alexandrinus LT—common in spring, passes again in September. H—so common that from the time of its arrival to its departure it is practically impossible to visit SF without seeing it; ‘Often there are hundreds, more or less scattered over the SF. It breeds on the adjoining GS.’; latest date 6 November 1943. COE—23 March to the end of the survey period; 5717 bird-days to 13 May, by which date passage had ceased to be evident; breeding at TH and YH.
1986: at least 18,618 bird-days, 19 August to 11 November. On 19 August, only two were noted at SF and 15 at YH; 76 were at YH on 21st, and on 22 August there were ca. 1000 at SF, 152 at YH and ten at TH; numbers remained high from this date to around the end of September, with the highest counts (all at SF) at least 1000 on 27th and 750 on 31 August, 511 on 6th and 526 on 15 September; each seven day period to 27 September produced at least 2085 bird-days, with a peak of 3622 from 26 August to 1 September. By early October counts at SF were invariably below 200 and, though at least 300 were at SF on 8 October, numbers declined during the month, with SF counts dropping below 100 by 27th, and dwindling further in November—the only records after 4th were one on 9th and 11 on 11th (at SF).
1987: 12,846 bird-days, 18 August to 19 November. At least 145 were present on 18 August, though day totals thereafter did not exceed 54 until 27th, when 110 were present; there were 220 the next day, and numbers then dwindled to ca. 20 on 3rd and 30 on 5 September, after which numbers were higher as the peak passage began, lasting from 8 September to 19 October (or later), with each seven-day period producing at least 1100 bird-days; the highest day totals were 400 on 19 September and 490 on 14 October; the only count above 300 in the second half of October was 320 on 18th; in November, the highest count was 93 on 2nd, and numbers fell sharply after 72 on 3rd; there were 23 on 5th, 16 on 6th, six on 8th and singles on 14th and 19th.
1988 (Ho): at least 6385 bird-days, 8 September to 19 November; highest day total 515 on 30 September.
1989: common at SF in September, maximum 300 on 21st; 2669 bird-days, 8 October to 8 November; highest count 400 at SF on 10 October; numbers declined thereafter, e.g. there were 100 at this locality on 16th, 50 on 27 October, 15 on 3 November, and the last record was one at Re on 8 November.
1990: before 23 October, 6332 bird-days, highest day totals 425 on 1st, 400 on 4th and 400 on 14 October. From 23 October, at least 700 bird-days (sometimes just noted as ‘present’), 23 October to 8 November; highest counts at SF 150 on 25th and 165 on 31 October; numbers here were down to 39 on 8 November, and it may be that these left with the northerly airstream of 9th and 10th, which prompted heavy migration.

•(NT)Long-billed Plover Charadrius placidus LT—summers in the district, breeding ‘on the stony beaches of the Shanhaikuan [= Shanhaiguan] River (Shih Ho)’. Wilder (1940)—one between 16th and 25 March 1940. WH—single ‘large sized Ring Plovers … which were probably this species’ on 6 April 1916 and 27 October 1897. H, COE—no records.
1986: an immature was at SF on 27th, 31 August and 1 September.
1987: eight were present on 30 August.

Lesser Sand-Plover (Mongolian Plover) Charadrius mongolus LT—one record, in spring: five birds on 16 May 1913. H—sand-plovers (both this and the following species, which were not always distinguished) rather commonly seen on SF, but usually only singly or a few at a time, sometimes in minor flocks of, say, 10-40; Lesser Sand-Plovers recorded on nine autumn dates, of which four were in July, 5 July to 11 October (unidentified sand-plovers seen as late as 6 November). COE—213 bird-days, 5 April to 26 May.
1986: 53 bird-days, 22 August to 23 September; the only records before 27 August were three on 22nd and one on 23rd; seen almost daily from this date, though the highest day total was only five on 6th and 15 September; all were at SF.
1987: 141 bird-days, 27 August to 21 October; highest day total 22 (present) on 30 August; otherwise, counts in single figures, and the highest day total in the first half of September was seven on 2nd; in the second half, six on 16th, and the highest day total in the first half of October was five on 5th and 6th; seen on most days to 13 October, after which the only records were singles on 16th and 21st.
1988 (Ho): five bird-days, 10-27 September.
1989: one was at SF on 8th and 10 October.
1990: 21 bird-days, highest day total four on 1st and 23 September; all before 23 October.

Greater Sand-Plover Charadrius leschenaultii LT—one shot at Qinhuangdao, 22 May 1913. H—sand-plovers (both this and the preceding species, which were not always distinguished) rather commonly seen on SF, but usually only singly or a few at a time, sometimes in minor flocks of, say, 10-40; Greater Sand Plovers recorded on at least five autumn dates, 5 July to 2 October (unidentified sand plovers seen as late as 6 November). COE—73 bird-days, 13 April to 24 May.
1986: two were at SF on 21st and YH on 22nd and one was at SF from 29-31 August.
1987: one was present from 26-30 August.
1988 (Ho): one on 5 November.
1989: one at SF on 9 September.
1990: singles on 30 August, 1st, 13th and 27 September.

Little Whimbrel Numenius minutus LT—extremely abundant on passage during September. H--recorded on 16-18 dates, 13 August (or possibly as early as 24 July) to 12 October; all but three of these dates in 1944. Largest flock 51 on 21 August 1944. Favoured pools at the Grassy Sands. COE—337 bird-days, 18 April to 19 May; 276 flew north and 30 were at YH on 6 May.
1986: ten were at SF on 27 August, and singles were seen on 14th and 18 September.
1987: singles were recorded on 20th and 28 September.
1988, 1989: no records.
1990: three were recorded on 1st and one flew south on 21 September.
This species has been rare to scarce in recent autumns, not extremely abundant as La Touche reported, nor as regular as Hemmingsen found (though the Grassy Sands, where he mainly saw Little Whimbrel, is now not suitable for the species as it is covered by a plantation).

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus variegatus LT—seen passing on 27 August and other dates; ‘It is quite a common migrant both in spring and in early autumn.’ H—recorded on 24 or 25 dates, 12 July to 14 September (no records in 1943, when Hemmingsen arrived in Beidaihe on 10 September); also heard on 15 June and probably heard on 22 September 1944. Pooling spring and autumn sightings, total of 55 observations, ‘of which 12 were of single birds, while 33 numbered 2-9; and 10 numbered 10-30 birds. In a number of records the numbers were not counted (mostly 1 or a few).’ COE—2316 bird-days, 17 April to 30 May; birds showing characters of the eastern (variegatus) and western (phaeopus) sub-species were noted, though only variegatus has been previously recorded in east China; the only records of phaeopus in China are from Hong Kong and Xizang Aut. Reg. (Cheng 1987).
1986: 612 bird-days, 19 August to 4 October; peak numbers were from 19-29 August, which produced 370 bird-days and the highest day totals—49 (all at YH) on 21st, 105 (54 at SF, 47 at YH and four at TH) on 22nd and 68 (33 at each of SF and YH and two at TH) on 25th; the highest counts thereafter were 36 at SF on 31 August and 33 at SF on 6 September, after which numbers declined—there were five the next day, and the only counts in double figures were 12 at SF on 8th and 14 at SF on 11 September; after six on 12 September, day totals did not exceed three.
1987: 1031 bird-days, 18 August to 6 October; recorded most days, with totals often above 20, to 11 September; highest day totals were 62 on 18th, 54 on 21st, 58 on 29th and 56 on 31 August, 70 (including eight flying south) on 8th and 69 on 9 September; day totals all below 20 from 12 September and in single figures from 19 September.
1988 (Ho): 77 bird-days, 8 September to 2 October.
1989: no records.
1990: 635 bird-days, highest day totals 53 on 21st, 55 on 24th and 58 on 26 August; all before 23 October.

Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata LT—this and the next species usually difficult to distinguish as hard to approach; a Eurasian Curlew shot out of three on 28 August 1917; curlews pass very early in July; ‘I have heard them calling at night as early as the end of June, but it may be that birds heard so early in the season were wanderers from neighbouring breeding grounds.’ (But Wilder—cited below—reports only the Far-Eastern Curlew in June; the calls of the two species are similar.) H—large curlews seen on 10-12 dates in June (nine dates from 20-30 June), 25 throughout July, seven in August, 18 in September, 11-13 in October and two or three dates in November. Eurasian Curlews recorded on 24 dates from 19 July to 2 November. COE—280 bird-days, 18 March to 15 May.
1986: 145 bird-days, 22 August to 8 November; there was one at SF on 22nd, then 16 at YH on 25 August, the latter date marking the start of the main period of occurrence, which produced 86 bird-days to 31 August and the highest day total—34 (26 at SF, eight recorded from LH, flying south) on 27th; day totals thereafter were in single figures, and only recorded on five dates from 8 October, with the three records (five bird-days) after 20th all from YH.
1987: 46 bird-days, 20 August to 15 October; the highest day total was nine on 30 August (all flew south) and 15 September; the only record after one on 22 September was one on 15 October.
1988 (Ho): 25 bird-days, 9 September to 17 October; four to six were seen on several days.
1989: three on 17th and 30 September; 100 bird-days, 9 October to 16 November; the highest day total was 35 (at YH) on 9 October, eight were at this locality on 16 November.
1990: before 23 October, 264 bird-days, highest day totals 51 on 2nd and 50 on 31 August. The only record after 23 October was two at YH on 30 October.

•(NT)Far-Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis LT—’It is very probable that the birds heard at night in summer are of this species. I have seen them in September.’ Wilder (1925)—during visit to Beidaihe 12-30 June 1925, all curlews seen were this species; mentions hearing curlews flying south on the ‘dark and rainy’ night of 20th. H—perhaps heard 29 June; recorded on 15-17 dates from 11 July to 8 September. COE—661 bird-days, 26 March to 16 May. See also Eurasian Curlew.
1986: 558 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 8 November; high day totals early in the period were 15 on 22nd, 15 (ten present, five flying south) on 28th and 17 on 31 August, after which day totals did not exceed single figures until 25 September, when 28 were recorded. High day totals after this date were 24 on 28 September, 30 on 3rd, 17 on 4th, 28 on 25th and 17 on 31 October. These mainly resulted from high counts at YH, the favoured locality—17 on 28 September, 24 on 3rd, 14 on 4th, 22 on 25th and 16 on 31 October; the highest count at SF was 17 on 31 August. The only records in November were singles at SF on 1st and 2nd, and three on 8th.
1987: 325 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 24 October. To the end of August, 42 were recorded flying south (maximum 21 on 30th). Only nine bird-days for birds present to 27 August, after which more regularly present and only eight were recorded flying south (five on 10th, three on 14 September); 178 bird-days were logged for birds present from 28 August to 25 September (highest day totals 14 on 1st and 8 September), after which there were no more than four in a day until 13 October with 17 birds; there were 22 on 14th, 16 on 15th and six on 16 October, after which there were four records of singles.
1988 (Ho): 110 bird-days, beginning of the survey until at least the middle of October; YH, the favoured locality, covered only erratically—high counts here were 28 on 8th and 25 on 17 October.
1989: five were at YH on 9 October.
1990: before 23 October, 115 bird-days, highest day totals 14 on 24th, 12 on 31 August and 11 on 2 October. The only record thereafter was one at SF on 23 October.

Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa melanuroides LT—passes in August. H—seen only in 1944, on eight dates from 18 July to 4 September, in numbers up to 11; five of the records were at GS, two at SF. COE—48 bird-days, 23 March to 18 May.
1986: 31 bird-days: one flew south over Re and one was at SF on 31 August, one was at SF on 9th and 10th, 19 flew south over SF on 20th and eight flew south over SF on 22 September.
1987: six were present on 18 August, two were present on 1st and 27 flew south on 9 September.
1988 (Ho): one was seen on 10th and three on 11 September.
1990: 23 bird-days, highest day totals four on 22 September and 13 on 2 October; all before 23 October.

Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica LT—no records. H—11, or possibly 15, autumn records from 13 (or 1) July to 11 (or 25) October; maximum 23 on 13 July 1944; all but one were at SF (cf. Black-tailed Godwit). COE—280 bird-days, 5 April to 27 May.
1986: 958 bird-days, 20 August to 31 October; one to nine were recorded on seven dates to 29 August when 22 were at SF; from this date to 24 September, recorded on most dates with counts at SF typically in double figures, and high day totals (all of birds at SF) of 56 on 5th, 64 on 8th, 58 on 14th and 64 on 15 September; thereafter, single figures only at SF though double figures at YH on nine dates (maximum 19 on 1st, 13th and 16 October); the last record at SF was on 10 October.
1987: 481 bird-days (149 flew south), 24 August to 24 September; one on 24th was not followed until 29 on 30 August, after which recorded almost daily to 19 September, with the highest day totals 61 (52 present, nine flying south) on 1st, 75 (29 present, 46 flying south) on 7th and 94 (50 present, 44 flying south) on 10 September; one to six recorded on four dates after 16 September.
1988 (Ho): 79 bird-days, 9 September to 10 October; highest day total 18 on 12 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 59 bird-days, highest day totals seven on 2nd and 13 on 4 September; all before 23 October.

Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus LT—observed in September and early October. H—recorded on four (possibly ten) autumn dates, 19 July to 6 (or possibly 10) November; maximum 12-28 on 6 November 1943. COE—59 bird-days, 20 March to 26 May.
1986: 66 bird-days, 20 August to 31 October; records were scattered and mainly of single birds; the highest day totals were five (at SF) on 27 August, eight (flying south over SF) on 8th, six (at SF) on 24 September, eight (one at SF, seven flying south) on 30th and seven (at Re) on 31 October.
1987: 112 bird-days, 18 August to 22 November; the highest day total was 17 (flying south) on 6 October and ten (present) on 1 November; the only record after 9 November was one on 22nd; most were seen at YH.
1988 (Ho, Earthwatch): 48 bird-days, 21 September to 17 November; a flock of 24 was at YH on 7 November.
1989: seven bird-days, 9-14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 42 bird-days, highest day totals ten on 3rd, nine on 29 September and six on 3 October. The only record after 23 October was one at SF on 23 October.

Common Redshank Tringa totanus LT—believed seen in August. H—recorded on 23 (possibly 25) autumn dates, 23 June to 10 September; ‘Usually only 1-4 were seen.’ COE—292 bird-days, 18 March to 31 May.
1986: 18 bird-days, 22 August to 16 September; highest day total five (at SF) on 11 September.
1987: 64 bird-days (26 were recorded flying south), 18-31 August; highest day total 32 on 18th.
1988: no records.
1989: one on 16 September.
1990: ten bird-days, highest day total two on 21st, 30 August, 5th and 6 September; all before 23 October.

Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis LT—no records. H—four on 26 June 1944, one on 13 July 1944 and probably one on 23 July 1944. COE—288 bird-days, 7 April to 24 May.
1986: 520 bird-days, 20 August to 30 October; highest day totals were 31 (nine at SF, 22 at YH) on 22nd, 193 (180 at SF, 13 at YH) on 27th and 76 (59 at SF, 17 at YH) on 31 August, 39 (at SF) on 6 September, and 30 (at YH) on 16 October, after which there were only two records—of two, and four, birds; main passage was early in the period—399 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 6 September.
1987: 423 bird-days, 18 August to 1 November; 368 bird-days (223 flew south) to 31 August; highest day totals 61 (present) on 26th and 79 (three present, 76 flying south) on 28 August; the only day total in double figures during September was 27 (flying south) on 9th; the only record after 20 September was one on 1 November.
1988 (Ho): two were seen on 9 September and one on 13 October.
1989: one at Re on 21 September.
1990: 219 bird-days, highest day totals 25 on 25th, 45 on 31 August and 110 on 1 September; all before 23 October.

Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia LT—passes in September and October. H—recorded on 79-82 autumn dates, 1 July to 6 November; ‘Usually only 1-4 very often single ones, sometimes (July-August) 6-12.’ COE—457 bird-days, 7 April to 31 May.
1986: 449 bird-days, 20 August to 8 November; highest day totals 28 (at YH) on 21st, 33 (21 at SF, eight at Re, four recorded from LH, flying south) on 27 August, 21 (at YH) on 25 September, 53 (one at SF, 49 at YH, three at TH) on 25th and 26 (25 at YH, one at Re) on 31 October, after which the only record was eight at YH on 8 November; regular at SF to 26 September but infrequent at this locality thereafter.
1987: 904 bird-days, 18 August to 6 November; highest day total to 13 October was 19 (present) on 26 August; there were 29 on 13 October, the start of the main period of occurrence, which lasted to 6 November and produced 651 bird-days and the highest day totals—55 (present) on 15th and 20th, and 52 on 26 October.
1988 (Ho): 163 bird-days, 8 September to 17 October; highest day total 25 on 17 October; very few shorebird counts from mid-October to early November.
1989: one on 16th and two on 21 September; 50 bird-days, 8-24 October; highest count ten at YH on 11 October.
1990: 173 bird-days, highest day totals 19 on 23rd and 21 on 25 September; all before 23 October.

Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus LT—’It no doubt passes with the other Waders in August and September, but I have no recorded observations for these months. I have, however, observed it on the 11th of October.’ H—recorded on 15-19 autumn dates, 8 (possibly 5) July to 22 September; only single birds, or in two or three cases pairs, were seen on each occasion. COE—91 bird-days, 10 April to 24 May.
1986: 87 bird-days, 23 August to 9 November; other than 18 (four at, or overflying, SF, six at Re, eight recorded from LH, flying south) on 27 August, day totals of one or two except for three (at Re) on 15th, three (flying south) on 17th, four (two at Re, two at TH) on 30 September, four (two at Re, one at TH, one at, or overflying, LH) on 1st, three (two at Re, two flying south) on 8th and five (at Re) on 23 October.
1987: 176 bird-days (72 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 27 October; highest day totals 45 (two present, 43 flying south) on 18th, nine (flying south) on 28 August, and 15 (13 present, two flying south) on 9 September; otherwise typically in low single figures.
1988 (Ho): 35 bird-days, 10 September to 18 October; highest day total four on 10 September and 15 October.
1989: four bird-days, 16-26 September; 74 bird-days, 8 October to 16 November; highest day total 11 at Re on 16 October; the only record after 3 November was three at YH on 16th.
1990: before 23 October, 63 bird-days, highest day total five on 23 August, six on 8th and five on 10 October. From 23 October, the only record was one at Re on 25 October.

Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola LT—’appears to be the commonest sandpiper at Chingwangtao [= Qinhuangdao].’; passes from the beginning of August to the first week in September. H—’much commoner and more omnipresent’ than the Green Sandpiper; autumn records from 10 July to 21 (possibly 22) September. COE—1459 bird-days, 3 April to 24 May.
1986: 255 bird-days, 20 August to 25 October; the period to 2 September produced 202 bird-days and the highest day total—91 (82 at SF, six at Re and three overflying LH) on 27 August; thereafter, recorded on most days to 27 September, though only one to four in a day except 14 on 6th and six on 10th; from 27 September, no records until one on 25 October. Though birds were seen at SF, they rarely lingered there for any length of time, sometimes arriving from the north, landing, and soon flying south. (Several other largely freshwater shorebirds such as Temminck’s Stint behaved similarly.)
1987: 634 bird-days (528 were recorded flying south), 19 August to 13 October; the period to 3 September produced 571 bird-days and the highest day totals—96 (flying south) on 20th, 160 (23 present, 137 flying south) on 24th and 101 (flying south) on 26 August; in September, frequent to 20th (mainly in single figures), after which the only records were singles on 27th, and 7th and 13 October.
1988 (Ho): singles on 8th and 11 September.
1989: Four at Re on 21 September; ten bird-days, 12-16 October; all at Re; maximum of four birds on 13 October.
1990: 118 bird-days, highest day totals 23 on 24th, 30 August and 16 on 1 September; all before 23 October.
The lack of good habitat for freshwater shorebirds may account for the relative scarcity of this and several other species in recent autumns when compared to spring 1985, when many records were from Tai-Ho [Daihe] Pool, which has since been rendered of little value to birds.

•(EN)Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer LT, H, COE—no records. Cheng (1987)—no records from Hebei; status: rare.
1986: a juvenile was at SF during 4-6 September.
1990: three birds were recorded at SF: two on 13th and 14th, one on 28 September.
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus LT—no autumn records. H—recorded on 29-35 autumn dates, 11 July to 22 September; ‘The number of birds in the parties seen, varied from single ones or a few up to abt. 25; numbers about or below 10 were most frequent.’ COE—130 bird-days, 21 April to 31 May.
1986: 290 bird-days, 20 August to 6 October; the period to 31 August produced 189 bird-days and the highest day totals—48 (41 at SF, six at YH, one at TH) on 22nd, 28 (23 at SF, five at YH) on 23rd and 29 (28 at SF, one at Re) on 27 August; daily in September, when the only counts in double figures were 11 at SF on 6th and ten at SF on 8th; no more than three in a day after 9th; in October, there were two at SF on 1st and three at SF on 6th.
1987: 223 bird-days, 18 August to 30 September; the period to 30 August produced 200 bird-days and the highest day totals—42 (35 present, seven flying south) on 18th, 45 (20 present, 25 flying south) on 27th, 33 (25 present, eight flying south) on 28th and 31 (one present, 30 flying south) on 30th; one to four recorded on nine dates from 31 August to 15 September, after which the records were of singles over 18th to 21st and on 30 September.
1988 (Ho): seven on 8 September and one on 8 October.
1989: no records.
1990: 28 bird-days, highest day totals four on 21st and six on 23 August; all before 23 October.

Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos LT—passes in August and September. H—recorded on 44-47 autumn dates, 7 July to 5 (possibly 17) September; ‘Usually in numbers below 10, rarely 10-20.’ COE—340 bird-days, 1 April to 30 May.
1986: 64 bird-days, 20 August to 28 September; the period to 9 September produced 58 bird-days and the highest day totals—six (three at SF, three at Re) on 27 August, seven (six at SF, one at Re) on 6th and nine (at SF) on 9 September, after which there were four records of singles and one record of two birds.
1987: 189 bird-days, 18 August to 10 October; the period to 13 September produced 171 bird-days and the highest day totals—nine (present) on 25 August, 77 (44 present, 33 flying south) on 5th and eight (present) on 8 September; no more than three in a day after 13 September; the only records after 24 September were singles on 2nd and 10 October.
1988 (Ho): 12 bird-days, 8-24 September.
1989: at Re, three on 16th and one on 21 September.
1990: 53 bird-days, highest day total six on 25 August; all before 23 October.

Grey-tailed Tattler Heteroscelus brevipes LT—two grey sandpipers which appeared to be this species seen on 13 September 1915. H—recorded on 25 autumn dates, 19 July to 30 September; ‘Only in small numbers, 10 or usually less, often 2 differing a little in size, prob. male and female’. COE—39 bird-days, 10-26 May.
1986: 1381 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 10 September; 1270 bird-days were logged to 10 September, after which there were no more than ten in a day. Mainly recorded at SF, where there were 100 or more on five dates to 31 August (including 189 on 22nd, the highest day total), and the highest count thereafter was 89 on 6 September. There were no more than five in a day from 17 September; the only records in October were four on 1st and singles at SF on 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th and 8th.
1987: 1066 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 8 October; 985 bird-days to 14 September, after which there were no more than ten in a day. The highest day totals were 51 on 19th, 50 on 25th, 58 on 27th and 54 on 30 August, 60 on 2nd, 57 on 3rd and 6th, and 59 on 9 September. There were 321 bird-days (no more than four in a day) in October.
1988 (H): 117 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 17 October; highest day total 12 on 19 September.
1989: one was at TH on 10 October.
1990: 410 bird-days, highest day totals 40 on 21st and 42 on 24 August.
The recent records show that this is a common migrant, if maybe somewhat erratic in its occurrence, and numbers in 1986 and 1987, especially, were well above those recorded by Hemmingsen.

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LT—no records. H—recorded on 10 autumn dates, 20 July to 20 September; ‘Each time only 1-6 individuals were seen. 14 out of 24 observations [spring and autumn] were single individuals.’ COE—59 bird-days, 3-29 May.
1986: nine bird-days, 23 August to 19 September; all were at SF: two on 23rd, one on 26th, two on 27 August; one from 6th to 8th and one on 19 September.
1987: 30 bird-days (18 or less birds?), 18 August to 6 October; 16 bird-days (eight were recorded flying south, up to three present) to 27 August; records of one on ten dates from 20-30 September and on the four dates 3-6 October.
1988 (Ho): 94 bird-days, 9 September to 5 November; 22 on 9th, 25 on 10th, 22 on 11th and 11 on 12 September; none from 25 September to 5 November, when one was seen.
1989: no records.
1990: three bird-days, two on 1 September.

•(NT)Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus LT, H—no records. Wilder and Hubbard (1938)—specimen, 30 July 1923. COE—two on 18th and one on 28 April.
1987: single adults were seen over 22-24 August and on 10 September.
1990: one was at SF on 1 September.

Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura LT—passes throughout August and during the first few days of September; ‘It is more or less abundant, according to the state of the ground.’ WH—several times, 15-23 August 1919. H—1942 (shot): 19 August (one); 1944 (shot): 7 August (one unsexed, two females), 11-25 August (eight unsexed, one female). COE—56 bird-days, 28 April to 1 June.
1986: one was at LH on 24th and two were at SF on 27 August.
1987: 20 bird-days: three were present on 20th and 21st, one on 22nd, nine were recorded flying south on 24 August; singles were recorded flying south on 2nd and 3rd and 19th, and one present on 16 September (reportedly, birds flying past distinguished from Swinhoe’s Snipe partly by ‘heads held at different angle’).
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 9-19 September; one expired in hand, after being struck by an Accipiter at Daihe.
1989: one was at Re from 12-16 October.
1990: eight bird-days, highest day total two on 22 August; all before 23 October.

Swinhoe’s Snipe Gallinago megala LT—passes during the last ten days of August; much less common than the Pintail and Common Snipe. H—1944 (shot): 7 August (one female), 11 August (two), 14 August (one) and 25 August (one). COE—no records (possibly, some were misidentified as Pintail Snipe).
1986: singles were recorded at Se on 11 September and 6 October.
1987: one on 5 September.
1988: no records.
1989: one at TH on 26 September.
1990: singles on 13th and 25 September.

Pintail Snipe/Swinhoe’s Snipe Gallinago stenura/G. megala
1986: 44 bird-days (all but five were recorded flying south), 23 August to 21 September; highest day total 30 (recorded from LH, flying south) on 1 September.
1987: 49 bird-days (43 were recorded flying south), 24 August to 19 September; highest day total 41 (flying south) on 24 August.
1988, 1990: not recorded; none seen in 1989.

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago LT—begins to pass in autumn during the last half of August, and ‘in suitable spots remains throughout September. Laggards may be found in October and even in November.… In September 1913, owing probably to the favourable condition of the marshes in this vicinity, Snipe of this species swarmed there during the first half of the month.’ COE—110 bird-days, 26 March to 28 May.
1986: 75 bird-days, 20 August to 17 November; highest day totals 12 (eight at or overflying SF, four at Re) on 27th and seven (two at SF, five recorded from LH, flying south) on 28 August; otherwise records of one to five; the only records after 25 September were one flying south on 29 September, one at YH on 4th, five at YH on 31 October and one at YH on 17 November.
1987: 89 bird-days (67 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 26 October; highest day total 16 (flying south) on 19 September; otherwise single figures; the only records after 13 October were singles (same bird?) on 21st, 22nd and 26 October.
1988 (Ho): 154 bird-days, 2 September to the end of October; highest day total 102 (flying south) on 18 September.
1989: 11 on 16th, eight on 21 September, one on 17 October.
1990: 111 bird-days, highest day totals 13 on 1st, 11 on 22nd and nine on 25 September; all before 23 October.

Unidentified snipe Gallinago spp.
1986: 308 bird-days (236 were recorded from LH, flying south), 20 August to 4 October; highest day totals 30 (at least 14 of which flew south) on 21 August, 53 (14 flying south over SF, 39 flying south over LH) on 6th and 69 (recorded from LH, flying south) on 7 September.
1987: 117 bird-days (104 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 31 October; highest day totals—all of birds flying south—17 on 25 August, 36 on 18th and 13 on 25 September.
1988, 1989, 1990: not recorded.

Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minima LT—no records. H—specimen shot by Sir Francis Aglen end of August 1915 near Beidaihe. COE—no records.
1986: one was at Re on 5 October.
1987: one on 27 September.
1988 (Ho): one was at Re on 7 October.
1989: one was at Re on 15 October.
1990: no records.

Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola LT—not at all uncommon during September. H—none seen by Hemmingsen in autumn, but three other observers reported them in September. COE—13 birds, 11 April to 18 May.
1986: 37 bird-days, 18 September to 30 October; the period 27 September to 12 October produced 27 bird-days; no more than three in a day. The favoured localities were Se and LH.
1987: 46 bird-days, 18 September to 14 October; the period 4-10 October produced 31 bird-days; the highest day total was six on 6th, 8th and 10 October.
1988: singles on seven dates from 11 September to 8 October.
1990: before 23 October, two bird-days; one at LP on 23 October, and none thereafter.

Red Knot Calidris canutus LT—no records. H—recorded on seven or eight autumn dates, 19 July to 17 September or 9 October; ‘I have seen mostly very small numbers, sometimes minor flocks.’ COE—32 bird-days, 17 April to 22 May.
1986: 22 bird-days, 20 August to 6 September: five on 20th, three during 22nd to 23rd, five on 26th, four on 27th, singles on 31 August and 6 September. Hence, there were perhaps 16 birds; all were at SF.
1987: 104 bird-days, 18-31 August (44 were recorded flying south); the highest day total of birds present was 13 on 18th, and of birds flying south, 19 on 28 August.
1988, 1989: no records.
1990: 59 bird-days, highest day total 22 on 23 August; all before 23 October.

Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris LT—no records. H—recorded on 14 or 15 autumn dates, 13 July to 21 October; ‘usually in numbers below 10; sometimes, abt. 20.’ COE—27 bird-days, 1-30 April.
1986: 200 bird-days, 20 August to 25 October; peak passage was from 25 August to 10 September, which produced 160 bird-days, and the highest day total—29 on 6 September. After three on 20 September, the only records were of a late adult at SF over 20-25 October. About 20 percent of the birds recorded were flying south.
1987: 204 bird-days, 18 August to 29 September (122 were recorded flying south); peak passage was from 18 August to 10 September, which produced 180 bird days, and the highest day total—57 on 8 September (all but one of which flew south); other than 31 on 30 August, totals of birds present were in single figures.
1988 (Ho): 12 bird-days, 9-19 September; highest day total six on 9 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 98 bird-days, highest day totals 20 on 26 August, 14 on 2nd and 17 on 13 September; all before 23 October.

Sanderling Calidris alba LT—no autumn records. H—recorded on 46-48 dates in autumn, 5 July to 16 November; ‘At the beginnning and end of passages often in smaller numbers … end of Sept.-beg. Oct. I have found it more numerous in flocks of, say, 30-100. It is then one of the more common waders on SF.’ COE—28 bird-days, 5 April to 23 May.
1986: 28 bird-days, 22 August to 2 November; 17 bird-days were logged from 22-27 August (highest day total five on 27th), after which there were two on 31 August and 1 September, two on 7th, three on 24 September, one on 24 October and one on 2 November.
1987: 54 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 6 October. Records in August were one on 18th and three on 27th, 30th and 31st; 27 bird-days were logged over 2-15 September (highest day total six on 5th and 10th), after which there were singles on seven dates, eight on 29 September and two on 6 October.
1988 (Ho): six bird-days, 12-23 September.
1989: one at SF on 16 September.
1990: 17 bird-days, highest day total five on 24 September; all before 23 October.
This species has been scarce in recent years, not common as Hemmingsen found; a similar decline is evident in spring (Williams 1986, Williams and Dorner 1991).

Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis LT—no records at Qinhuangdao, but ‘abundant on the marshy plain near Newchwang in September 1889.’ H—recorded on 34-37 dates in autumn, 19 July to 11 October; ‘Usually in flocks of smaller numbers of up to about 20-25, often with other small waders.’ COE—629 bird-days, 13 April to 28 May.
1986: 733 bird-days, 22 August to 16 October; other than 141 birds (the highest day total) on 27 August, day totals were below 20 until 69 (the second highest day total) on 6 September, which marked the start of the main period of occurrence, which lasted to 22 September, and produced 434 bird-days (birds aged during this period were all juveniles). All were at SF.
1987: 2916 bird-days, 18 August to 25 October; 2711 bird-days were logged to 25 September; the highest day totals were 700 (present) on 25th (there were 78 the next day), 275 (present) on 27th, 115 (flying south) on 28 August, 154 (present) on 9th, 182 (114 present, 68 flying south) on 10th, 125 on 15th and 121 on 21 September; after 15 on 3 October, day totals in single figures; the only records in the second half of October were two on 20th and 25th.
1988 (Ho): 355 bird-days, 8 September to 5 October; highest day total 150 on 12 September.
1989: two at SF on 16 September.
1990: before 23 October, 807 bird-days, highest day totals 87 on 30th, 202 on 31 August and 137 on 1 September. After 23 October, one was at SF on five dates from 25 October to 8 November (thought to be the same individual).

Temminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii LT—one shot, 25 August 1912. H—20 September 1943, ‘some, judging from size and trilling call.’ COE—47 bird-days, 14 April to 11 May.
1986: 90 bird-days, 22 August to 27 September; the highest day totals were 13 on 31 August and 47 on 6 September; otherwise mostly singles, the exceptions being two on 8th, six on 10th, two on 12th, 14th and 23 September. All but one were at SF, where birds sometimes arrived from the north, landing for only a short time before heading south again.
1987: two on 9th, one on 19 September, and one on 6 October.
1988 (Ho): one on 9 September.
1989: three at SF on 16 September.
1990: 32 bird-days, highest day totals four on 24th, seven on 25th and six on 31 August; all before 23 October.

Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta LT—shot in nearby marshes on 22 August and 3 September 1917. H—one or two birds possibly this species on 26 June 1944, recorded on probably seven dates from 24 July (or possibly 26 June) to 4 September; ‘In the beginning of the autumn minor parties of 10-20 were seen, from end Aug. fewer, down to single ones.’ COE—82 bird-days, 23 April to 21 May.
1986: two on 27th and five on 30 August.
1987: three on 9th and one or two on 19 September.
1988, 1989: no records.
1990: five bird-days (three individuals?): two on 22nd, singles on 23rd, 30th and 31 August.

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata LT—no records, though ‘no doubt it passes’. H—recorded on 19 July 1944 (six), 24 July 1944 (two to four) and 20 September 1943 (one). COE—136 bird-days, 20 April to 24 May.
1986: 18 bird-days, 25 August to 8 September; 16 bird-days in August (other than six on 30th, one or two in a day); singles on 6th and 8 September. All were at SF.
1987: 30 bird-days, 18 August to 21 September; 29 bird-days to 31 August—highest day totals eight (flying south) on 26th and six (present) on 28 August; the only record in September was one on 21st.
1988, 1989: no records.
1990: seven bird-days, highest day total four on 31 August; all before 23 October.

Dunlin Calidris alpina LT—one of two birds shot on 12 October 1914. H—recorded on 43-49 dates in autumn, 13 July to 13 (possibly 20) November; ‘In 1942 and 1944 usually only in small numbers up to 6; but in Sept. and Oct. 1943 it was perhaps the most numerous of the small waders on SF in flocks of 30-100 or more.… The last seen in Nov. were single ones.’ COE—137 bird-days, 20 March to 18 May.
1986: 1762 bird-days, 21 August to 4 November; the main passage was from 12 September to 16 October, which produced 1262 bird-days and the highest day totals—95 (77 at SF, 18 at YH) on 28 September, 82 (at SF) on 8th and 96 (at SF) on 16 October; a further 306 bird-days were logged during the final two weeks of October. Mainly recorded at SF.
1987: 1746 bird-days, 18 August to 6 November (57 were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 243 (195 present, 48 flying south) on 3rd, 75 on 9 September, 68 on 23rd, 70 on 24th and 80 on 28 October; 968 bird-days were logged from 9 September to 16 October, and 632 bird-days from 17 October to 6 November.
1988 (Ho): 969 bird-days, 10 September to 18 November; highest day total 94 on 8 October.
1989: two on 16th, ten on 21st, one on 26 September; 190 bird-days, 8 October to 3 November; 128 bird-days over 23-29 October; highest day total 34 (nine at SF, 25 at YH) on 25 October.
1990: before 23 October, 1120 bird-days, highest day totals 85 on 28th, 125 on 30 September and 120 on 22 October. From 23 October, 180 bird-days, 25 October to 8 November; highest counts (all at SF) 30 on 25th, 60 on 29th and 65 on 31 October, after which day totals not above ten; last date seen coincides with last dates for Kentish Plover and the lingering Red-necked Stint (there was heavy migration prompted by a northerly airstream on 9th and 10th).

Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea LT—no records at Qinhuangdao. H—recorded on six dates in autumn, 11 July to 17 September. COE—998 bird-days, 27 April to 28 May.
1986: 74 bird-days, 21 August to 26 September (27 were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 16 on 27th, 27 (flying south) on 29 August and ten on 2 September; the only record after 6 September was a juvenile on 26 September. All but one were recorded at SF.
1987: 69 bird-days, 18 August to 9 September (three were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 11 on 18th and 12 on 29 August; only nine bird-days were logged after 1 September.
1988 (Ho): two on 28 September.
1990: 13 bird-days, highest day totals six on 30th and five on 31 August; all before 23 October.

Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus LT—no records. H—recorded on seven dates in autumn, 24 July to 23 September; maximum 10-15 on 21 August 1944. COE—21 bird-days, 5 April to 23 May.
1986: 71 bird-days, 22 August to 22 September; the highest day totals were 18 on 25 August and 15 on 6 September, otherwise no more than five in a day. All but one were recorded at SF.
1987: 207 bird-days, 18 August to 25 September (39 were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 54 (37 present, 17 flying south) on 24th, 23 (nine present, 14 flying south) on 25th, 33 on 26 August, 36 (29 present, seven flying south) on 9th and ten on 13 September.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 9-17 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 78 bird-days, highest day totals 11 on 23rd, 21 on 30 August and 16 on 1 September.

Ruff Philomachus pugnax LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—only northeast China records are a specimen Wilder found in Beijing market, and from Qingdao, Shandong province; migrant and winter visitor to Fujian and Guangdong provinces.
1990: one flew south over SF with 21 Marsh Sandpipers on 31 August.

Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus LT—no autumn records. H—small flock on 22 August 1942 and four on 4 August 1944. COE—239 bird-days, 5 April to 31 May.
1986: 780 bird-days, 20 August to 23 September (550 were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 45 (39 at SF, six at Re) on 27th, 414 (11 present at and 209 recorded flying south over SF, another 194 flying south over LH) on 30 August, 91 (82 at SF, nine recorded from LH, flying south) on 6th, 103 (recorded from LH, flying south) on 7th, 35 (recorded from LH, flying south) on 8th, and 32 (at SF) on 11 September, on which date there were also two flocks heard flying south before dawn.
1987: 673 bird-days, 18 August to 8 September (636 were recorded flying south); the highest day totals were 110 (flying south) on 22nd and 378 (flying south) on 30 August, after which the only record was five (present) on 8 September.
1988 (Ho): 162 bird-days, 9-13 September; highest day total 121 on 9 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 108 bird-days, highest day total 31 on 21 August; all before 23 October.

Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LT—two in the market late one autumn. H—only in 1944: probably two flying towards northeast on 1 July, 23 on 19 July and on eight dates from 21 July to 30 September, in numbers of four to nine; additionally, a friend probably saw three from a boat on the sea on 16 July 1942. COE—39 bird-days, 27 March to 13 May.
1986: 139 bird-days, 20 August to 29 September: singles on 20th and 31 August, 80 (recorded from SF, flying south) on 6 September, 40 at SF on 11th, one on 16th, eight (at SF) on 17th, and eight (four at SF, four [same birds?] at YH) on 24 September.
1987: 122 bird-days, 18 August to 6 October; 107 were recorded flying south to 30 August (highest day totals 40 on 18th and 62 on 30th), during which period only one bird was recorded as present; after this, the records were 11 (present) on 5th, one (present) on 9 September and two (flying south) on 6 October.
1988 (Ho): one on 9th and five on 19 September.
1989: one was at SF on 8 October.
1990: 57 bird-days, highest day totals 23 on 1st and 21 on 13 September; all before 23 October.

Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—recorded on migration in much of east China (though not Hebei province).
1986: one was at SF on 27 August.
1990: one was at SF on 31 August.

Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum LT—very abundant from the end of August to the end of September. H—recorded on 25-28 dates in autumn, 1 July to 18 September; ‘Usually only a few were seen each time, except … during the maximum of autumn migration 1944 abt. 11.VIII-15.IX. During this period birds were often heard several times during the same day; and flocks of 7, 9, 13, 14, 16, 18, 24, 38, and on 5.IX even abt. 300, were noted. Most of these flocks flew toward SW … The two birds seen on GS 25.VI behaved as if they were breeding near by, but I did not find any in the same locality 8.VII.’ COE—1618 bird-days, 9 April to the end of the survey period.
1986: 4789 bird-days (most flew south, including 3838 recorded from LH), 21 August to 29 October; five bird-days (four birds) before 28 August; highest day totals 403 (363 recorded from LH, flying south, 33 at SF and seven at Re) on 29th, 879 (all but 64 flew south) on 30 August, 477 (210 at, or overflying SF, 267 flying south over other localites) on 11th and 915 (all flew south: 791 were recorded from LH, 104 from SF and 20 from Se) on 12 September; only 12 bird-days after 27 September (when 236 were recorded), with the only October records singles flying south on 8th and 28th.
1987: 2325 bird-days (2106 were recorded flying south), 18 August to 4 November; only August records were singles flying south on 18th and 27th, a further five to 6 September, when 62 recorded flying south marked the onset of main passage; highest day totals were 231 (six present, 225 flying south) on 8th, 162 (32 present, 130 flying south) on 12th, 280 (flying south) on 15 September and 160 (flying south) on 8 October. Passage was later than in 1986; recorded almost daily to mid-October (730 bird-days were logged from 1st-16th), and 20 were recorded from 17 October to 4 November (when five flew south).
1988 (Ho): at least 2700 bird-days, 9 September to 14 October; 1925 passed in the second half of September; 820 recorded flying south in the late afternoon of 14 September, in flocks of up to 285 birds, may have been only a fraction of the total which passed that day.
1989: 72 flew south, 18 September to 5 October, highest day total 60 on 5 October; one flew south on 8th, two flew south on 16th and one was at YH on 25 October.
1990: 1509 bird-days, highest day totals 518 on 3rd, 253 on 13 September and 185 on 2 October; all before 23 October.
[header=Skuas, Gulls and Terns]
Arctic Skua (Parasitic Jaeger) Stercorarius parasiticus LT, H, COE—no records. Not listed in Cheng (1987).
1990: a first-winter bird was seen at SF on 3 October; apparently the first record from the Chinese coast, though there have been reports offshore (e.g. Hopkin 1990).

Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris LT—no certain records at Qinhuangdao but common at Newchwang, on the southern coast of Manchuria, in 1889. H—not uncommon in autumn (unlike spring); 27 July to 20 November. COE—10-12 individuals, 6 April to 7 May. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei; status: one of the commonest gulls along the coast.
1986: 263 bird-days, 20 August to 1 November, mostly at SF. About 68 percent of the total number of bird-days had been logged by the end of the first week of September, with the highest day totals being 31 on 1 September and 24 on 20 August. During 8-22 September, one to three birds were recorded on most days; four were present over 23rd-24th and ten on 25th. There was a reversion to the one to three birds in a day pattern until 14 October, when six were at SF. Subsequently, only eight bird-days were logged.
1987: 440 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 17 November (only five bird-days in November); highest day totals 21 (present) on 24th, 31 (eight present, 21 flying south) on 28 August and 21 on 3 September; after ten on 12 September, the only day totals in double figures were 14 on 3rd and 11 on 28 October.
1988 (Ho): 47 bird-days, 8 September to 7 November; highest day total seven on 23 September.
1989: singles on 17th and 25 September; 83 bird-days, 8 October to 3 November; highest day totals 12 on 9th and 18 on 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 296 bird-days, highest day totals 15 on 30 August, 15 on 1st, 18 on 3rd and 16 on 20 September. From 23 October, 115 bird-days (56 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 16 November; highest day total 64 (50 recorded from LP, flying south offshore, one at SF, five at TH and eight at YH) on 30 October; the next day 29 were at SF and five were recorded flying south offshore. Counts did not otherwise exceed five, and only five bird-days were logged in November.

Common Gull Larus canus kamtschatschensis/L.c. heinei LT—noticed ‘about the harbour and coast.’ H—winter visitor, earliest certain record 11 October. COE—recorded until 19 May, less common than the Vega Gull. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: 877 bird-days, 28 September to 20 November. No more than eight birds were noted on any one day to 24 October. There was an influx over the next two days—83 were present on 26th. Numbers then declined, but picked up again on 9 November, and on 11th 105 were present, the highest day count. On 19 November, the last day of the survey, 86 were at SF, the species’ favoured locality.
1987: 4106 bird-days, 2 September to the end of the survey; 22 bird-days to the beginning of October, 3227 bird-days during the first three weeks of November; highest day totals 330 on 6th, 385 on 8th, 380 on 14th, 450 on 17th, 335 on 18th and 320 on 19 November; after the latter date, the highest day total was 150.
1988 (Ho): at least 1439 bird-days, 10 September to 19 November; only 34 bird-days to mid-October; highest day total at least 760 on 17 November.
1989: 736 bird-days, 8 October to 16 November; day totals not above 20 until 24 October; highest day total 105 (at SF) on 2nd and 16 November.
1990: before 23 October, 86 bird-days. From 23 October, 864 bird-days (120 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 16 November. Prior to 29 October, when 33 at SF, counts not above 15; on 30th 95 were recorded from LP, flying south offshore, as well as 45 at SF and one at YH; 95 were at SF the next day, and counts in November included 120 at SF on 3rd, and 150 at SF and 30 at YH on 16th. Small numbers noted--but not always logged—from LH, flying south, on several days in November.

Vega Gull Larus (argentatus) vegae and Yellow-legged Gull L. cachinanns mongolicus LT—Vega Gull passes at much the same time as the Common Black-headed Gull, and often seen in winter. Specimen of Yellow-legged Gull seen in game-shop, 29 November 1914. Sh—Vega Gull a summer visitor; Yellow-legged Gull a rare summer visitor, ‘recorded along the coast of this province by several authors.’ H—noted in all months; usually less than 30. COE—recorded until 27 May; up to 50 Vega Gulls each day until mid-April. Ch—Yellow-legged Gull breeds in Nei Mongol Aut. Region, migrates through Ningxia Hui Aut. Region and Shaanxi; Vega Gull is a migrant and winter visitor to east coast and southern China.
1986: Vega Gull: 5547 bird-days, 19 August to 20 November. Numbers built up swiftly to an initial peak of 1092 bird-days during 4-9 September, then quickly declined to about 265 bird-days for each of the subsequent two weeks. The three-week period from 24 September to 14 October saw another peak, with 2196 bird-days logged. Between 93 and 251 bird-days were logged in each of the remaining five weeks to the end of the survey period. High day totals included 351 (including 52 passing south) on 5th, 224 on 17th, 526 (including 62 passing south) on 23 September and 269 on 9 October. Most records were from SF.
1987: Vega Gull: 8901 bird-days, throughout the survey; mainly second week of September to early November; highest day totals 337 (over 300 present, 37 flying south) on 10th, 305 (present) on 21st and 382 (present) on 30 September; after 80 on 14th, the highest day total in November was 51 on 29th. Yellow-legged or Lesser Black-backed Gulls: 27 bird-days, 19 September to 17 October; perhaps only three were cachinnans.
1988 (Ho): 3690 bird-days, 8 September to 19 November; three adults which were thought to be Yellow-legged Gulls were seen late September to early October, otherwise the records refer to Vega Gull; highest day total 240 on 13 October.
1989: Vega Gull: recorded from 15 September; 1422 bird-days (44 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; highest day total 210 on 14 October; counts of 50 or more at SF made on ten dates to 29 October; subsequently the highest count at this locality was 46 on 2 November and ca. 20 were typically present at SF. Forty-four were recorded from LH, flying south, from 26 October to 10 November. Three Yellow-legged Gulls were at SF on 25 October.
1990: Vega Gull: before 23 October, 5485 bird-days, highest day totals 280 on 3rd and 410 on 7 September. From 23 October, 624 bird-days (24 were recorded flying south), 25 October to 16 November; 80 at SF on 25 October; on 30th, 23 were recorded from LP, flying south offshore, 65 were at SF, six at TH and 14 at YH; 110 were at SF the next day, and day totals in November did not exceed 50, with 45 (35 at SF, 10 at YH) still present on 16th. Nine bird-days for gulls thought to be Yellow-legged Gulls, highest day total two on 6th and 7 October; all before 23 October.
Shaw’s assertion that Vega and Yellow-legged Gulls are summer visitors is not borne out by evidence available to us. Vega Gulls may be seen for much of, or throughout, the year, and are commonest during the migration seasons.

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus? taimyrensis or Heuglin’s Gull Larus heuglini? taimyrensis/L.h. heuglini (The taxonomic status of gulls of race taimyrensis—to which the dark-backed ‘herring’ gulls at Beidaihe probably belong—is currently uncertain.) Not listed in Cheng (1987). La Touche (1925-1934) describes two Lesser Black-backed Gull specimens from the east China coast, but later (in errata) notes that the identification was changed, to Slaty-backed Gull. COE—passage of very dark-backed ‘herring’ type gulls from 18 April to 23 May; total of 71 birds.
1986: adult ‘herring gulls’ with dark upperparts were seen on 6th (approaching slate grey) and 26 September (similar hue to a nearby second-winter Black-tailed Gull).
1987: 27 bird-days for gulls which were this (sub-)species or Yellow-legged Gulls, 19 September to 17 October; most were considered to be taimyrensis.
1989: a bird at SF from 8-10 October may have been this species, as may six at YH on 11 October (though these were considered too large).
1990: eight bird-days were logged for gulls appearing similar to Lesser Black-backed Gulls: one third-year on 31 August, two adults on 3rd, one adult on 6 September and single first-years on 6th, 12th, 13th and 20 October.

Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus LT, H—no records. COE—three birds on 23 March and two on 19 April.
1987: one seen, 5 October.
1990: before 23 October, a third-year bird was seen on 7th and an adult on 20 October. From 23 October, an adult and a sub-adult (third year?) were at SF on 31 October.

Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus LT—two in the harbour, 5 February 1917. Sh—’This is a regular migrant and summer visitor. It inhabits the coast of this province all the year round, except the cold winter months.’ H—no records. COE—three birds, 23-30 March. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1986: an adult in summer plumage was at TH on 24 September.
1987: singles on 29 October and 2 November.
It would seem that Shaw’s description of the species’ occurrence is questionable; the Glaucous Gull is a northern species, and seems most likely to occur in late autumn, winter and early spring (in reasonable accord with the records cited), rather than all year except winter.

Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—breeds Qinghai and Nei Mongol Aut. Region; migrates through western half of the country.
1986: a first-winter bird was at YH on 7 October. This is probably the first record for the east coast of China (the species has been recorded as a vagrant in Japan: Brazil 1991).
1987: one, 13 October (description not available).
1989: a first-winter bird was seen at TH on four dates from 9-17 October.
1990: eight individuals were recorded, 29 August to 1 October; two in August, three in first half of September and three in first half of October; all but a third-year on 6th and 7 September were first-year birds.

Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus H, LT, COE—no records. Previous records by Wilder & Hubbard (1924) may be of Relict Gulls (see below).
1990: an adult was at SF on 22 October.

•(NT)Relict Gull (Central Asian Gull) Larus relictus H, LT, COE—no records; though Hemmingsen may have misidentified some as Common Gulls, as features he noted on some ‘Common Gulls’ are characters of Relict (‘narrow black tail band … dark legs’). Ch—cites letter from Ben King telling of three specimens in Leningrad, all from ‘Tangzing’ (Dagu, Taku), southern Hebei coast; singles collected 28 October 1934 and 8th and 9 April 1935. They had been originally identified as Brown-headed Gulls Larus brunnicephalus. Similarly, two ‘Brown-headed Gull’ specimens in Academia Sinica, Beijing, have been found to be this species; they were also collected at Dagu. These specimens, the westerly distribution of most certainly identified Brown-headed Gulls in China, and drawings of ‘Brown-headed Gull’ specimens in Shaw (1935)—which appear to show Relict Gulls—strongly suggest that many, perhaps all, literature references to Brown-headed Gulls in Hebei actually refer to Relict Gulls (which were not described as a species until 1970). Shaw states that the ‘Brown-headed Gull’ (= Relict?) is a regular passage migrant, and a summer visitor. ‘It comes from the south in April, and remains to stay here until October.’ WH—a ‘Brown-headed Gull’ specimen taken, some 15 having been seen, 18 January 1923. On 21 April 1923, one was seen, but with some doubts as to its identity.
1986: 112 bird-days, 23 August to 20 November. All were seen at SF and—apart from the first record, an adult moulting out of summer plumage—all were first-winter birds. The first of these immatures was seen on 8 September, and numbers peaked at seven birds on 25 September. The birds tended to linger in the area (a bird with its breast stained, perhaps by oil, was seen from 19 October to at least 2 November) and it could be that as few as 17 individuals were involved. Thirty-two bird-days were logged over 12 dates in September. The first week of October produced only one bird, on 2nd, but records were again frequent from 8th, with 41 bird-days logged over 16 dates to the 31st (maximum five on 19 October). Four were seen on 1st and 2nd, one on 4th, three on 9th, 11th, 13th and 18th, two on 19th, and three on 20 November.
1987: 92 bird-days, throughout the survey; 44 bird-days 27 September to 21 October (additionally, an adult in breeding plumage was seen flying north on 29 July; observers were present from 26th to 29th); not seen first half of November but eight bird-days (two individuals?) 17th-29th. Highest day totals five on 1st and seven on 18 October. Details of ages are incomplete, but first-winter birds predominated; there were single adults in winter plumage on 10th and 16 October and one which was probably second winter on 15 October.
1988 (Ho): ten bird-days (four individuals), 19 September to 11 October.
1989: a first-winter bird was at SF on 20 October.
1990: before 23 October, 13 individuals, all but an adult on 14 September were first-years; seen from 24 August, with highest count three on 21 September and 16 October, otherwise singles. From 23 October, three first-year birds were seen: one at SF on 23rd, one recorded from LP, flying south offshore, on 30 October and one at YH on 15th and 16 November.
For more information on the species’ occurrence in autumns 1986 and 1987—and descriptions of first-winter birds—see Bakewell et al. (1989). Duff et al. (1991) summarise records of Relict Gulls.

Common Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus LT—passage begins in early July, continuing sometimes until early November. H—more common in autumn than in spring, 1 July to 26 November. Over four years, 23-24 dates in July, 12 in August, 19 in September, 50 in October and 31 in November. COE—the commonest gull, recorded until 24 May. Maximum roost count 1000.
1986: 20,355 bird-days, 20 August to 20 November, the entire survey period. Easily the commonest of the gull species, as in spring 1985. The monthly breakdown was: August—3610 bird-days; September—6023; October—8274 and November—2323. The peak two weeks were the last week of September and the first week of October, when 5280 bird-days were logged. Numbers remained between 1372 and 1940 bird-days for the subsequent four weeks and declined to about 950 during the last week of our stay. The highest day total was 1039 (359 at SF, 680 at YH) on 25 September.
1987: 39,067 bird-days, throughout the survey. The highest day total before 13 October was 715 (present) on 23 August; there were 1005 on 13 October and 1500-2000 (the highest day total) the next day; numbers remained high to the second week of November, with further high counts of 1200 on 19th, 1000 on 24th, 1160 on 28th and 1050 on 31 October and 3 November; the highest day total thereafter was 600 on 22 November, after which numbers did not exceed 40.
1988 (Ho): 11,290 bird-days, throughout the survey; highest day total 1100 on 5 November; counts lacking on 33 dates.
1989: recorded from 15 September; 779 bird-days, 8 October to 16 November, when highest counts 350 at SF on 23 October and 500 at the same locality on 2 November.
1990: before 23 October, high day totals were at least 1500 flying south on 31 August, 925 on 13th and 675 on 15 September. At least 3003 bird-days (sometimes just recorded as ‘present’; 168 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 16 November. Highest day total 876 (166 recorded from LP, flying south offshore, 200 at SF, 350 at TH and 160 at YH) on 30 October; unlike Black-tailed, Common and Vega Gulls no influx apparent on 31 October, when 200 at SF. Numbers did not tail off to end of survey: 250 were at SF on 15 November, and 100 at SF and 80 at YH the next day.

•(EN)Saunders’s Gull Larus saundersi LT, H—no records. Sh—not common; passes April and September. Ch—migrates through Hebei. COE—10-19 birds, 2 April to 22 May.
1986: a first-winter bird was at SF on 31 October.
1987: singles on 15th, 16th and 18th, five on 21st, two on 31 October and one on 1 November.
1988 (Ho): one, 15 October.
1989: an adult in winter plumage was at SF on 20 October, and two second-winter birds were on the shore at Grassy Sands on 23 October.
1990: four records at SF: single first-years on 30 September and 16 October, two first-winter birds on 25 October and an adult on 8 November.

Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—recorded in winter in Liaoning (Lushun), Hebei and Jiangsu (Shaweishan Island) Provinces; status: very rare.
1989: an immature flew past LP on 8 November.
1990: a first-winter bird was seen at SF on 31 October, when a large influx of gulls was noted at this locality.

Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida LT—no records. WH—’The whiskered tern seems to move with the preceding [White-winged Tern] chronologically and may have been confused with it at times in the records.’ Since they were distinguished, records at Beidaihe were: 500 on 30 August and 20 on 2 September 1916, 16 August 1918 and 20 on 19 August 1918. No mention of passage on 31 July 1916, when—according to La Touche—Wilder shot one and saw many flocks passing down the coast. H—eight to ten birds in two autumns, 1 July to 25 August. No spring records. COE—181 bird-days, 17 April to 1 June.
1986: 311 bird-days, 20 August to 5 October. The main passage was from 6-15 September, when 126 bird-days were logged; 59 were recorded 30-31 August, including the highest day count—43 birds—on 30th. Most records were from SF/Re area and YH, typically of birds flying south; 32 were also seen from LH, flying south.
1987: 333 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 11 October; only 12 bird-days after 30 August. Highest day total 190 on 18 August—all flying south.
1988 (Ho): 12 bird-days, 13 September to 2 October.
1988 (Earthwatch): two late birds were at Re on 25 October.
1989: two at TH on 26 September.
1990: 171 bird-days, highest day totals 22 on 31 August, 36 on 1st and 38 on 3 September; all before 23 October.

White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus LT—very abundant during the latter half of August, ‘when it travels down the coast in flocks.’ WH—’Records of eight years show it to occur in flocks of 20 to 50 or more at Peitaiho [= Beidaihe] all through July, August and into September at least, September 8th being my last date though it may occur later of course. … Beginning to migrate South, June 27.’ Wilder (1925)—’seen since 18.7, flying southwards in small parties. … All birds seen were in full breeding plumage.’ H—seen throughout the summer, 5 June to 24 September. In 1944 the species ‘occurred in countless numbers … already on the move from the first day of their appearance 17.VI, when flying past, always on the move towards S or SW, … in July often in much large numbers, e.g. hundreds at a time. … An example: On 11.VII 9-10.30 a.m. flocks came continuously from the CHT [Qinhuangdao] bay, joining 150-200 or more resting on SF, other loose flocks continuously leaving SF towards SW. Many hundreds must have passed. The same was seen again in the evening and on many other days. Many thousands must have passed if the hours are allowed for in which no observations were made.’ COE—892 bird-days, 10-31 May.
1986: 3001 bird-days, 20 August to 20 September. Most were seen at SF and YH, often migrating south; 386 were recorded from LH, flying south. The first week of the survey saw 358 bird-days logged, and the following 13-day period to 8 September was the main passage period, with 2511 bird-days logged, including the maximum day count of 900 on 30th (795 of these flew south over SF from 07h45-12h20). After 8 September, only 101 bird-days were logged to the end of the passage. Migrating birds not infrequently flew southwest over SF, and headed over the town to the south coast (a shorter route than if they had continued down the coast and passed round Lighthouse Point).
1987: 3744 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 28 October; only 12 bird-days after 11 September; 3206 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals 920 on 18th, 485 on 22nd and 690 on 30 August; only 12 bird-days after 11 September; three birds in October—two on 7th and one over 26th-28th.
1988 (Ho): 182 bird-days, 9 September to 12 October; highest day total 110 on 9 September.
1990: 1349 bird-days, highest day totals 641 on 31 August and 196 on 1 September; all before 23 October.

Black Tern Chlidonias nigra LT, H, COE—no records. Cheng—breeds in Xinjiang Aut. Reg., stragglers recorded at Tianjin in June, Beijing in August; also refers to record(s) in Hong Kong, but there are no certain Hong Kong records—the first is unsufficiently supported and the second appears to be a misidentification (Chalmers 1986). Also one at Yancheng, Jiangsu province, on 12 June 1992 (GJC pers. obs.).
1989: one at Re on 4 October (Ben King, in litt. to MDW).

Unidentified marsh terns Chlidonias sp.
1986: 213 bird-days, 21 August to 8 October; the highest count was 109 on 30 August.
1987: 59 bird-days.
1988 (Ho): six bird-days.

Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica LT—no autumn records. WH—one shot 19 July 1923; flock of eight flying over 3 August 1923 probably this species. H—39 dates in two years, 13 June to 29 August. Ch—migrant and possibly a summer visitor to Hebei. COE—97 bird-days, 9 April to 26 May.
1986: 33 bird-days, with records on 14 dates from 20 August to 4 October. It seems that about 20 individuals were involved. The highest day total was five birds on 27 August; 29 bird-days had been logged by 14 September, after which the species was only recorded on three dates. Most records were from SF; a few were seen at YH and occasional birds were seen from LH, flying south.
1987: 59 bird-days (30 flew south), beginning of the survey to 11 September; only two bird-days after 30 August; highest day total 15 on 20 August.
1988 (Ho), 1989: no records.
1990: ten bird-days, highest day total two on 1 September; all before 23 October.

Caspian Tern Hydroprogne tschegrava LT—no records. Wilder (1925)—nesting near Hsieh Chia Ying Marshes, about 15 miles southwest of Beidaihe. H—seen from 24 July to 19 October over four years, with a maximum of 10 on any one day. COE—26 bird-days from 12 dates, 8 April to 4 May.
1986: 145 bird-days were logged from 27 August to 31 October. Most were recorded from 27 August to 10 October, with the peak day count being 46 at YH on 9 October. Apart from this notably high count (the next highest was 13 at SF on 27 August), mainly recorded early in the period. The majority of records were from SF.
1987: 234 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 2 November; 128 bird-days from 7-24 October; highest day total 15 on 13 October. A bird with a green leg ring (band) was seen on 18 October.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 10 September to early November.
1989: 110 bird-days, 9 October to 7 November; the highest day totals were 22 on 9th and 20 on 24 October.
1990: before 23 October, 86 bird-days, highest day totals seven on 24 August, at least 10 on 1 September and 11 on 20 October. From 23 October, 11 bird-days (three were recorded flying south), 25-31 October; highest day total six (three recorded from LP, flying south offshore, three at YH) on 30 October.

(Eastern) Common Tern (Nordmann’s Tern) Sterna hirundo LT—’numbers’ passed in flocks, August and September; found breeding from the coast about 20 miles west-southwest of Qinhuangdao (S.h. tibetana). WH—common from June to at least 15 September, as many as 50 being often seen at water’s edge during August. Arthur Morrison collected specimens of both S.h. longipennis and S.h. tibetana at Beidaihe in 1941. Wilder (1925)—found three pairs nesting at Hsieh Chia Ying Marshes, about 15 miles southwest of Beidaihe (same locality as La Touche’s breeding birds?), June 1925. H—frequently through the summer months, departing in September but exact date not known due to uncertainty over identification. COE—16 bird-days, 21 April to 14 May.
1986: 763 bird-days were logged from 19 August to 13 October. The main passage was during the first three weeks of the survey: 246 bird-days were logged during the first week, 136 in second and 77 in the next two, and high day totals were 115 (108 at SF, eight at YH) on 20th and 76 (at SF) on 27 August. However, the maximum day total was 118 on 29 September, which marked the beginning of a five-day pulse of birds that produced 273 bird-days. Only 20 individuals were recorded after 3 October. One on 14 September was identified as S.h. minussensis, a sub-species de Schauensee (1984) states occurs in western China, but is not listed by Cheng (1987).
1987: 3540 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 11 October; highest day totals 450 (20 flying south) on 8th, 450 on 9th and 330 (130 flying south) on 10 September; other than 388 which flew south on 11 October, only 55 bird-days after 16 September.
1988 (Ho): 11 bird-days, 9-18 September.
1989: regular from 15 September to early October; 75 bird-days, 8 October to 8 November; 69 (13 at SF, 66 at Se) on 9 October; after one at SF on 23 October, the only records were one at Re on 1st and 8 November.
1990: 1275 bird-days, highest day totals 141 on 28 August, 208 on 3 September and 180 on 2 October; all before 23 October.

Little Tern Sterna albifrons LT—breeds commonly, remains until October. WH—very common breeder. Records from Beidaihe for six years were from June to 15 September. H—seen throughout the summer, last certain date 3 September, but possibly later. COE—369 bird-days, 9 April to end of the survey period; bred at YH.
1986: 738 bird-days were logged from 19 August to 16 September; 440 bird-days were logged in the week to 26 August, 145 to 2 September, 102 to 9th and 28 in the final week of passage. The highest day total was 162 (72 at SF, 78 at YH, 12 at TH) on 22 August. The majority of records were from SF and YH.
1987: 656 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 1 October; only records after 15 September were singles on 21st and 23 September and 1 October. The highest day totals were 102 on 23rd and 125 on 24 August.
1988 (Ho): 52 bird-days, early September.
1989: one flew past LP on 14 October.
1990: 419 bird-days, highest day totals 61 on 27th, 50 on 28 August and 73 on 3 September; all before 23 October.

Unidentified terns Sterna spp.
1986: 45 unidentified terns were recorded from Se, passing south offshore, on 26 September.
1987: four birds.
[header=Sandgrouse and Doves]
Pallas’s Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus LT—of very irregular occurrence at Qinhuangdao; believed it was seen in great numbers in the winter of 1905, but after that it was apparently not recorded until the autumn of 1912. In that year, on 10 November, ‘I met several flocks flying very swiftly towards the north-east… During that month a great number appeared to have passed, some from west to east, others in an opposite direction… Mr C.B. Rickett wrote to me in the spring of 1913 that great numbers of Sand-Grouse were imported that season into England from Russia, so that 1912-13 must have been a great Sand-Grouse year.’ WH—influx to Hebei in November 1922 due to heavy snowstorms in Mongolia ‘where they usually winter’; recorded 8 November 1922 to 6 April 1923 at Beijing ‘in enormous flocks’, and two flocks seen at Beidaihe on 8 May 1923 (Wilder 1923). H—commonly seen in the severe winter of 1944-45; 26 records from about 7 November to 12 March 1944, ‘The flocks were sometimes numbering from one hundred to several hundreds’; scarce in January, numbers lower in spring.
1989: one circled over SF and headed towards Re on 2 November. Also, a flock of 16 birds that were probably this species was seen from LH, flying southwest, on 8 November.
Though this species is of erratic occurrence at Beidaihe, its rarity in recent years perhaps suggests that numbers have fallen—much as they have in the western parts of its range.

[Stock Dove Columba oenas] LT, H, COE—no records.
1990: before 23 October, two on 7th, 9th and one on 15 October. From 23 October, two records at LH: two on 25th, and one present and a party of five flying south on 26 October. Well to the east of the known range of the species (Cheng 1987), and these may have been feral birds.

Rock Dove Columbia livia LT—one shot, out of a flock of Hill Pigeons C. rupestris on 21 May 1911 (shot in the mountains?, where La Touche found the Hill Pigeon to be a common resident). H—pairs seen at ER repeatedly in October and November 1943 and two pairs nesting there summer 1945. But wrote that he was ‘not quite sure that there were any purely wild ones among them.’ COE—no records. Ch—range of C. l. nigricans given as Nei Mongol Aut. Region and northeast Hebei.
1986: 41 birds were seen from LH, flying south, from 28 October to 17 November. Though there were small numbers of feral birds seen in the town throughout the period, and these were also seen from LH, the appearance of the birds recorded was consistent with them being wild birds (the feral pigeons were mostly variable in plumage), and they were apparently migrating past. However, like Hemmingsen, we cannot be certain that the records refer to wild birds.
1988 (Ho): some seeming to migrate in late autumn.

Rufous Turtle-Dove (Oriental Turtle Dove) Streptopelia orientalis LT—passage throughout September until 15 October and probably later. Appears to nest in the district. H—present all year with passage in spring and (presumably) autumn. COE—common migrant, some remaining to breed.
1986: 1646 bird-days, 21 August to 19 November.

d and 70 on 6 October.
1988 (Ho): 1059 bird-days, 9 September to 18 November; peak passage mid-September to early October.
1989: almost daily from 15 September; 653 bird-days (121 flew south), 8 October to 14 November; a count of 55 at Re on 3 November was notable (counts at this locality did not otherwise exceed 25); at LH, after 9 November, only five birds were recorded as present and 74 flew south from 10-12 November.
1990: before 23 October, 650 bird-days, highest day totals 69 on 9th, 84 on 10th and 70 on 22 September. From 23 October, 470 bird-days, throughout the period; highest counts made at LH, where 30 on 5th and 40 on 7 November (it appears that birds fly in to roost here in late afternoon).

Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto LT—very common resident a few miles inland. H—common all year. COE—seven records, during the first half of the survey period.
1986: 32 bird-days, recorded on 10 dates from 29 August to 16 October. Five were seen at LH on three dates to 7 September, when six were recorded flying south. There were a further ten bird-days logged over 10-17 September, and four in October. The records perhaps involved around 20 individuals.
1987: 40 bird-days, 2 September to the end of the survey, though a gap in records between 21 October and 20 November. The highest day totals were three on 27 September and four on 22 November.
1988: no records.
1989: two were at Study Gully on 9th, three were at Re on 27 October and there were one at Re and two at LH on 1 November.
1990: before 23 October, eight bird-days, highest day total three on 20 September. From 23 October, seven bird-days, 26 October to 7 November; other than one at Re on 29 October, all at LH, and singles except two on 1 November.

Red Turtle-Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica LT—no records. H—no records at Beidaihe but noted commonly near Beijing (suggesting a range extension). COE—two on 26 May. Ch—mentions Hebei as the most northerly part of its range in China although there is a record of a vagrant to Harbin, Heilongjiang.
1986: 31 bird-days, 20 August to 11 October: 13 during August, five and nine during the first and second halves of September, respectively, and the final four over 8-11 October. Most were seen at LH, although the maximum day total was 11 (three adults, eight juveniles) at YH on 25 August.
1987: 18 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 12 September; highest day total six on 8 September.
1988 (Ho): one, 4 October.
1990: before 23 October, three bird-days. After 23 October, one was at LH, with Rufous Turtle-Doves, on 5th and 7 November. Late for this species; the dates coincide with the year’s highest late autumn counts for Rufous Turtle-Dove.
[header=Cuckoos, Owls and Swifts]
Large Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus sparverioides LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—vagrant to Hebei. Cai (1987)—recorded at Beijing (gives two June and two September dates).
1986: a juvenile was at Se on 12 September, and what was probably the same bird was there on 16th.
Judging by recent observations in spring, this species evidently breeds at Old Peak, north of Qinhuangdao (MDW, pers. obs.).

Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus fugax LT, H, COE—no records. WH—specimen brought to taxidermist shop, 19 June 1919. Cheng—found in summer in northeast provinces and Hebei, migrant in east China; status: uncommon.
1989: one was at Se during 11-14 October.

Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus LT—passes 25 September to 7 October, probably breeds. H—all cuckoo sightings, ‘probably all’ Common Cuckoos, 17 August to 18 September, less common than in spring. COE—46 bird-days, 12-31 May.
1986: five were identified from 25 August to 3 September.
1987: 44 bird-days (including two identified flying south), beginning of the survey to 28 September; only one bird after 16 September.

Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus LT—specimens, 7 June 1911 and 29 August 1913. H—no records; mentions having seen specimens of Oriental Cuckoos in which the width of and intervals between the bars on the underparts were the same as on Common Cuckoos (wider, more distinct barring has been considered a feature of the Oriental Cuckoo). Sh—summer visitor, rather rare compared to the Common Cuckoo. COE—two on 25th and one on 26 May (identified by call).
1987: 15 bird-days (including one identified flying south), beginning of the survey to 11 September.
1988 (Ho): singles on 11 September and 1 October.
1990: nine bird-days, highest day total three on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Common Cuckoo/Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus canorus/C. saturatus
1986: 75 bird-days, 20 August to 19 September: 42 during the last 12 days of August and 33 during September. Since only two specimens of the Oriental Cuckoo have been collected in the area, Shaw considered this species rather rare compared to the Common Cuckoo, and Hemmingsen only heard the song of Common Cuckoos at Beidaihe (three were identified by song in spring 1985), it seems likely that most were Common Cuckoos.
1987: 73 bird-days from 23 August to 22 September.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 9-18 September.
1990: 55 bird-days, highest day totals five on 23rd and seven on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus LT, H, COE—no records. Sh—very rare summer visitor; only one record. Ch—range extends to Hebei, Liaoning and extreme southeastern Heilongjiang.
1986: one seen at LH on 29 August.
1987: 12 bird-days, 24 August to 4 October; highest day total three on 6 September.
1990: singles were recorded on 27th, 29 August, 2nd, 17th and 18 September.

Oriental Scops Owl Otus sunia LT—not uncommon on passage; three autumn specimens, mid-September to early October. H—three on 25 September 1943; probably also two on 15 September 1944. COE—two records.
1986: two were seen—one at YH on 30 September, and one at LH on 6 October.
1987: singles on 5th and 9 October.

Northern Eagle Owl Bubo bubo LT—common resident (in the mountains?); ‘it appears on the plain in winter… The natives often shoot this bird and bring the skins to the port for sale.’ Wilder (1940): during visit 16-25 March 1940, ‘Of resident birds the eagle owl at Lotus Hills, probably now nesting, was noteworthy’. H—one specimen 11-12 January 1945, probably a second bird present.
1986: there were two records at LH: singles on 9 October and 5 November.
1987: singles at LH on six dates from 21 October to 13 November.
1988 (Ho): singles on five dates from 13 October to 18 November; one flew over the town, the remainder were at LH—as in 1986 and 1987, it may be that only one bird was involved.
1989: 14 bird-days, 29 October to 14 November; all but one bird (at Re) seen at LH; two on 30 October, 2nd and 3 November, otherwise singles.
1990: one was at LH on 5 November.

Brown Hawk Owl Ninox scutulata LT—one shot by collectors 16 May 1913, one believed seen at Shanhaiguan on 10 October 1914, and another seen at Qinhuangdao (date not given). H, COE—no records.
1987: one, 6 October.

Little Owl Athene noctua LT—common in winter on the plain. H—not uncommon; one record in June, 33-34 records 19 September to 20 November. COE—no records.
1986: 29 bird-days, 21 August to 7 November. There were three bird-days during August and September, and a further 21 during October. The actual number of individuals may have been quite low (conceivably less than seven). LH and Se were the favoured localities, and the highest day total was three birds on 3 October.
1987: 30 bird-days, 2 September to 23 November; only singles on three days until 5 October; highest day total four on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): 18 bird-days (four to five individuals), 9 September to 18 November.
1989: one at LH on 6 October; 13 bird-days, 9 October to 9 November; two on 9th and 29 October, otherwise singles.
1990: heard daily from August to mid-September.

Long-eared Owl Asio otus LT—very common migrant, ‘seen throughout October and November.’ H—two autumn records. COE—8-11 birds.
1986: 139 bird-days, 7 October to 20 November. Most of these derived from counts of birds leaving or returning to a roost in trees beside the Diplomatic Personnel Guest House where, according to hotel staff, there is a regular roost in winter. The roost may have been first established as early as 20 October; numbers increased during the last week of the survey period and the highest count made was 25 birds on 19 November. The total of 109 bird-days which accrued on and after 9 November were derived solely from this roost, and it may be that as few as 35 individuals were seen during the survey. Also seen at LH and YH.
1987: 57 bird-days, 15 October to the end of the survey; 50 bird-days after 5 November (mainly/wholly birds using the roost at the D.P. Guest House); highest day totals eight on 18th and 20 on 21 November.
1988 (Ho): singles on 16 September and 13 November; the roost at the hotel was not checked.
1989: ten bird-days, 12 October to 5 November; singles only; no records from D.P. Guest House, even though there were observers staying here and occasionally watching for roosting birds.
1990: before 23 October, one seen. From 23 October, singles at LH on 24th, 26th and 31 October, and at TH on 4 November. There were no observations at the D.P. Guest House.
In recent years, this species has been uncommon, not a very common migrant as reported by La Touche.

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus LT—11-12 autumn records. H—no autumn records. COE—ten birds, 17 March to 16 April.
1986: 19 bird-days, 18 September to 20 November. The first record was of one flying in from over the sea at SF and was not followed until 3 October when one was at YH. Subsequently, there were eight on 10 October (all at LH, on a migration ‘wave’ day), one on 13th and one on 19 October, two in from over the sea on 2 November and another arriving from over the sea on 6 November. Singles were then recorded on 9th, 11th, 13th and 20 November.
1987: 35 bird-days, 30 September to 11 November; 12 were recorded flying south; highest day total four on 24th and 26 October.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 13 October to 7 November.
1989: ten bird-days, 9 October to 3 November; two on 13 October and 1 November, otherwise singles.
1990: before 23 October, four bird-days. From 23 October, singles at LH on 26 October and TH on 4 November.

Long-eared Owl/Short-eared Owl Asio otus/A. flammeus
1986: 13 were recorded from 18 September to 1 November.
1987: six bird-days, 23 October to 11 November.

Jungle Nightjar (Grey Nightjar) Caprimulgus indicus LT—a few, 27 August to 21st or 26 September. H—10-12 dates in two autumns, 20th or 23 August to 19 October. COE—seven birds, 1-28 May.
1986: ten bird-days (perhaps only six individuals), 24 August to 15 September. Singles were recorded on five days to 7 September, two were seen on 8th and 10th, and one on 15 September. Seven bird-days logged at LH, sometimes by observers arriving before sunrise to begin watching for passing migrants; the remaining three records were from Re.
1987: 18 bird-days, 2-21 September; highest day total four on 10 September.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 9-14 September.
1989: singles at LH on 12th and Re on 14 October.
1990: 11 bird-days, highest day total four on 17 September; all before 23 October.

White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacuta LT—a few pass in September. H—no records. COE—34 birds, 24 April to 18 May. Ch—breeds northeast China, south to northeast Hebei.
1986: 1387 bird-days, 20 August to 2 October; the number of individuals seen will have been very close to this total, as most were seen flying south. All records were from LH. Sixty-one were logged during the first week of the survey, and 363 during the next week, to 1 September. The peak of passage was from 6-11 September, when 516 birds were recorded. From 13-17 September only 21 were seen, but 424 flew south over 21st-22nd. After this, a further 12 birds were seen. The highest day totals were 353 on 21 September, 225 on 29 August, and 212 on 9th and 170 on 10 September.
1987: 1348 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 28 October; all but 179 were recorded flying south; highest day total 1160 on 6 September.
1988 (Ho): 270 bird-days, 9 September to 6 October; highest day totals 160 on 12th and 60 on 14 September.
1989: six flew south on 18th and one on 27 September.
1990: 97 bird-days, highest day total 36 on 26 August; all before 23 October.

Common Swift (Eurasian Swift) Apus apus pekinensis LT—breeds at Shanhaiguan, irregular at Qinhuangdao. H—no records at Beidaihe but numerous at Beijing. COE—142 birds from 10 April to 30 May.
1986: seven birds were recorded: singles on 23rd and 24 August and five on 23 September. All except one were seen passing LH.
1987: two flew south on 25 August and singles flew south on 8th and 19 September.
1990: one seen on 23 August.

Pacific Swift (Fork-tailed Swift) Apus pacificus LT—mid-August to the last ten days of September. Weigold—observed on passage on 29th and 30 August (singly), on 17 August many, which passed along the coast to the southwest speeding very high. H—’Seen in numbers from single ones up to flocks of several hundreds. … Those seen 17.IX 1943 were large flocks migrating in scattered formation toward W along the S shore. 20.VIII 1945 thousands passed EC [East Cliff, eastern Beidaihe] moving toward S in scattered flocks. From 5 p.m. (or earlier) up to 5.30 p.m. there was a continuous flow of birds.’ Seen all summer (suggesting breeding in the mountains?), and until 22 September. COE—4071 bird-days, 28 March to end of survey.
1986: 10,855 bird-days, 20 August to 22 October. As with the White-throated Needletail, the number of individuals seen will have been close to this total as most were seen flying south. The period 20-26 August saw 3002 bird-days logged; 7745 birds were recorded during the following seven-day period to 2 September. This total includes the maximum day count of 5190 birds on 30th, 4000 of which (considered a low estimate) passed south over Se from 16h00-18h00. The next highest day count was 1221 on 20 August. After 14 September, records were of no more than five birds in a day and just five were seen over three dates in October.
1987: 13,704 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 10 October; 13,615 bird-days from the beginning of the survey to 6 September. Highest day totals 1430 on 20th, 1180 on 25th and 7800 on 28 August. Most were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): 12 bird-days; 11 bird-days from 8-13 September, and a late bird on 9 November.
1989: one flew south on 22 September.
1990: not systematically recorded; all before 23 October.
[header=Kingfishers, Dollarbird, Hoopoe, Wryneck and Woodpeckers]
Crested Kingfisher Ceryle lugubris LT, H, COE—no records. Sh—rare summer visitor in the southern part of Hebei; has been observed around Beijing but very rare, and seen by Wilder at the Western Hills. Ch—C.l. guttulata resident in southern Hebei and east China south of Hebei; also (based on record(s) at Liaoyang) C.l. lugubris resident in Liaoning Province.
1987: eight bird-days, 26 September to 21 October. It may be that only one bird was involved: it frequented Re, where it was rather elusive; on the last day the species was recorded, there were sightings at Re and SF.
1990: one seen on 30 September.

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis LT—not uncommon during the summer. H—seven autumn records. COE—recorded on passage, and three breeding pairs.
1986: 169 bird-days, 20 August to 31 October. Seen regularly to 11 October, with the highest day totals ten on 27th and 12 on 29 August and seven on 24 September, 6th and 7 October. Forty-five bird-days were logged during August, only 18 during the first half of September, and numbers recorded then increased again, with 98 bird-days to 11 October: this pattern of occurrence may represent local birds moving away from the area by early September and a peak in numbers of passage migrants from around the middle of September to the middle of October. After 11 October, only 15 bird-days were logged. Re was, by far, the favoured locality.
1987: 173 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 9 November; only 11 bird-days in the second half of October and one bird in November; the highest day totals were eight on 13th and seven on 29 September.
1988 (Ho): 52 bird-days, 11 September to 17 October.
1989: recorded at Re and TH in September, when highest day total five on 16th and 21st; 18 bird-days: 17 bird-days, 8-23 October, and one on 2 November; highest count five at Re on 10 October.
1990: before 23 October, 126 bird-days, highest day totals seven on 25 August, seven on 13th, nine on 19th and seven on 28 September. The only record thereafter was two at Re on 23 October.

Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata LT—no records. H—one record, in spring. COE—records during May probably involved only one bird. Ch—breeds in Hebei (hilly country). Status: fairly common.
1986: three or four birds were recorded. Singles were at LH on 24 August, Se on 8th, LH on 9th and Re on 27 September.
1987: 48 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 25 September; 33 bird-days were logged from 5-15 September; the highest day total was seven on 11 September.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 18-26 September.
1990: 14 bird-days, highest day total two on 7 September; all before 23 October.

Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis LT—one at Qinhuangdao on 5 September and one shot at Shanhaiguan in September was sent to him. H—a young bird on 15 September 1944. COE—two singles during latter half of May.
1986: 28 bird-days were logged from 24 August to 22 September; perhaps 18 birds were involved. All records were from LH; six were of birds flying south. Four bird-days (probably two birds) were logged during August and a slight peak of passage was noted 6-11 September, when 16 bird-days were logged and there was the highest day count—six birds on 9th. The period 12-22 September produced only two records.
1987: 15 bird-days, 28 August to 16 September; no more than two birds in a day.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 11-19 September.
1989: one at LH on 15 September.
1990: nine bird-days, highest day total three on 26 August.

Hoopoe Upupa epops LT—irregular on autumn passage: only six dates over four years, from 3-22 August, plus one inland on 15 November. H—recorded over two years, on five dates in July and August, and three in September; groups of one to four. COE—514 bird-days, throughout the spring. Ch—’a few Hoopoes occasionally winter in the hill country of Hebei.’
1986: 243 bird-days were logged from 19 August to 19 November. The main passage was from 19 September to 14 October, when 120 bird-days were logged. Prior to this period, 59 bird-days were logged and afterwards, 64 bird-days. Only 23 bird-days were logged during November. The highest day counts were eight on 25 September and ten on 24 October. Favoured localities were Re and LH.
1987: 195 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 25 November; highest day total seven on 5th, 11th and 21 September.
1988 (Ho): 31 bird-days, 11 September to 10 November.
1989: one to two recorded on five dates from 17-26 September; 37 bird-days, 8 October to 6 November; highest day total ten on 6 November (one at LH, nine at YH).
1990: before 23 October, 23 bird-days, highest day total four on 23 August. The only record after 23 October was one at Re on 29 October.

Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla LT—common migrant in Hebei. Short autumn passage, end of August and beginning of September; seen from 29 August to 5 September and once only on 16th and 24 September. H—eight dates over three autumns. COE—42 bird-days, 9 April to 10 May.
1986: 15-17 birds were seen from 25 August to 7 October. Three to five birds were seen in August and eight from 4-7 September. Subsequent records involved singles on 11th, 15th and 27 September and 7 October. Occurred at several localities.
1987: 11 bird-days, 26 August to 4 October; no more than two birds in a day, only records after 11 September were one on 18 September and two on 4 October.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 13-16 September.
1989: singles on 6th and at EG on 9 October.
1990: ten bird-days, highest day total two on 10th and 13 September; all before 23 October.

Grey-headed Woodpecker Picus canus LT—very common resident in northeast Hebei. Wilder (1925)—the trees have developed so finely that several pairs of woodpeckers (does not give species) now breed regularly at Beidaihe, while they were never seen years ago. H—common resident. COE—common resident, not systematically recorded.
1986: a common resident, not systematically recorded.
1987: 525 bird-days, throughout the survey period; highest day total 19 on 13th and 23 October.
1988 (Ho): 151 bird-days, throughout the period; up to nine birds seen in a day.
1989: not systematically recorded; perhaps an influx on 5 November, when eight at Re.
1990: not systematically recorded.

Great Spotted Woodpecker Picoides major LT—very common resident in northeast Hebei. Wilder (1925)—see under previous species. H—common all year round. COE—very common resident, not systematically recorded.
1986: a common resident, not systematically recorded.
1987: 364 bird-days, throughout the survey period; highest day total 14 on 13 October; one was seen flying south on 19 September.
1988 (Ho): 94 bird-days, throughout the period; up to eight birds seen in a day.
1989: not systematically recorded; perhaps an influx on 5 November, when four or five at Re.
1990: not systematically recorded.

Rufous-bellied Woodpecker Picoides hyperythrus LT—common migrant, end of August to mid-September or even later. H—less common in autumn than in spring. Seen from 30 August to 22 September, 14-15 dates over four years (cf. 22 spring dates). COE—77 bird-days during May.
1986: 50 bird-days were recorded from 26 August to 16 October. Of the 43 bird-days logged in September, 17 were in the first week and 16 in the last, with ten in the intervening period. The only October records were of one at LH on 15th and 16th. The highest day total was five on 1st and 2 September.
1987: 50 bird-days, 31 August to 10 October; 40 bird-days from 1-13 September; highest day total seven on 3rd and 11 September.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 12-19 September.
1989: one on 16th, two on 19th and singles on 25th and 26 September.
1990: 13 bird-days, highest day total four on 5 September; all before 23 October.

Grey-capped Woodpecker Picoides canicapillus LT—recorded in wooded districts north of Qinhuangdao but not at the town itself. Wilder (1940)—among the resident birds seen during a visit 16-25 March 1940. H—seen quite often at various seasons. COE—one pair early in the period. Ch—resident in Hebei.
1986: 36 bird-days were recorded from 9 September to 16 November; all were recorded at LH. The highest day total was four on 9th, 19th and 23 September and 18 October. It may be that all birds were residents.
1987: 60 bird-days, throughout the survey period; highest day totals five on 24 October and four on 4th, 13 October and 8 November.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, throughout the survey period.
1989: at LH, two on 15 September and three on 6 October; 38 bird-days, 11 October to 11 November; highest day total 12 on 16 October (11 at LH, one at Re); otherwise no more than three in a day.
1990: before 23 October, 11 bird-days, highest day total three on 13 October. From 23 October, 13 bird-days, 24 October to 14 November; all at LH, where no more than two in a day.
[header=Larks, Martins and Swallows]
Mongolian Lark Melanocorypha mongolica LT—not usually of common occurrence in the vicinity. ‘On the 14th and 15th of November, 1914, however, myriads of these birds flew over, from an easterly or north-easterly direction going west. Flocks upon flocks composed of hundreds of these handsome birds went by during these two days. On the 16th I saw a large flock a few miles inland also going west, and was told that the birds had been passing for four days.’ WH—’Never saw it on the Peking plain even in winter, except once and that was probably a bird escaped from captivity.’ H—seen on 23 December 1944 (many) and 29 January 1945 (17).
1989: ca. 250 were at YH on 16 November. This record and ca. 120 seen at the Luanhe estuary during a visit on 18 October suggest that there was an irruption of this species during autumn 1989.

Asian Short-toed Lark (Lesser Short-toed Lark) Calandrella (rufescens) cheleensis LT—breeds abundantly; ‘I do not know that any winter, but flocks travel past with the Skylarks in autumn.’ H—seen in all months, though apparently much scarcer during August and September; common again, in flocks, in October and November. COE—common breeding species.
1986: 827 bird-days, 23 August to 19 November; 278 were recorded from LH, flying south. A dearth of records to mid-September (only 76 bird-days) supports Hemmingsen’s comment on the species relative scarcity at this time. Numbers picked up during the second half of September and from 22nd to the end of the first week of October 388 bird-days were logged, making this the peak passage period. One hundred bird-days were logged in the second week of October, 47 in third and 45 more to the end of the month; November produced 78 bird-days. The highest day totals were 67 (45 at SF, one at FP, 21 recorded from LH, flying south) on 22 September and 108 (46 at YH, 62 recorded from LH, flying south) on 4 October.
1987: 1101 bird-days, throughout the survey period; 76 were recorded flying south; highest day totals 50 on 16th, 57 on 23 October, 58 on 2nd and 70 on 3 November.
1988 (Ho): 126 bird-days, throughout the survey period.
1989: small numbers at YH and TH in September and early October; 246 bird-days (41 flew south), 9 October to 16 November; highest day totals 32 (30 flying south) on 13th and 30 at YH on 25 October and 40 at YH on 16 November.
1990: before 23 October, 86 bird-days, highest day total 23 on 20 October. From 23 October, 82 bird-days, 26 October to 16 November; singles at SF on 26 October and 3 November, and 20 on 15th and 60 on 16 November at YH.
The development of the new resort of Nandaihe has destroyed much of the former breeding habitat of this species at Beidaihe.

Crested Lark Galerida cristata LT—common resident in the hills but only two on the coast, both in October. H—common in winter, most often in minor flocks of 5-20 birds; earliest date 4 October. COE—eight to ten birds, including a possible breeding pair.
1986: 67 bird-days, 13 September to 17 November. Only three were seen in September; the period 2-9 October produced 47 bird-days, 13 were logged during the rest of the month and four during November, from 8th-17th. The highest day totals were 22 (18 at YH, four at TH) on 4th and 19 (ten at YH, nine at SF) on 7 October. YH was the favoured locality, followed by TH.
1987: 82 bird-days, 29 September to 11 November; 61 bird-days from 13-30 October; highest day total ten on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 20 September to 1 November; highest day total four on 1 November.
1989: 21 bird-days, 17 October to 16 November; other than singles at Re on 20th and 27 October, all at YH/TH, where the highest count was six on 17 October.
1990: no records.

Eurasian Skylark (Common Skylark) Alauda arvensis LT—migrates from the end of September well into November; many remain on the plain during winter. WH—very common in fields on the plain from 15 August throughout the winter. H—frequently noted from as early as 18 August throughout the autumn and winter; migration directly observed 28 September to 14 October 1944. COE—recorded from beginning of survey to 29 April.
1986: 181 bird-days were logged from 22 August to the end of the survey period. The first record—one flying south over LH—was not followed until 20 September and significant passage commenced on 24th; 32 bird-days were logged during the last week of September and 118 from 4-16 October; recorded on only five dates during the remainder of the passage period, when 30 bird-days were logged. It seems likely that the majority of the 10,136 unidentified larks were this species (previous authors indicate that this is the commonest of the larks, and observers in autumns after 1986 have identified the great majority of the passing larks as Eurasian Skylarks).
1987: 24,345 bird-days, throughout the survey period though only five bird-days to 17 September; 23,866 birds were recorded flying south; 23,288 bird-days were logged from 2-31 October. Highest day totals 5500 on 3rd, 6000 on 7th, 1500 on 14th and 2500 on 19 October.
1988 (Ho): 11,377 bird-days, 19 September to 18 November; highest day total 4500 flying south on 13 October.
1989: recorded from the end of September; 3199 bird-days (2188 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; 1992 flew south from 8-26 October (373 on 8th and 378 on 13th); highest count of birds present 200 at YH on 16 November.
1990: before 23 October, 2312 bird-days, highest day total 670 on 6 October. From 23 October, 734 bird-days (634 were recorded flying south); highest totals of birds flying south 209 on 25th and 77 on 26 October, and highest count of birds present 50 on 15 November.

Unidentified larks Calandrella/Galerida/Alauda sp.
1986: 10,136 unidentified larks were recorded from 23 September to 20 November. The peak day count was 1298 on 11 October. The vast majority were recorded from LH, flying south. As noted above, it seems likely that most were Eurasian Skylarks.
1987: 20 bird-days.

Sand Martin (Bank Swallow) Riparia riparia LT—passes in great numbers from about 10 August to early or mid-October. Most pass by mid-September. ‘Without doubt, this bird breeds in the vicinity.’ H—11 dates in two autumns, 3-25 August, plus probable on 2 October; only noted commonly in autumn 1944, sometimes in flocks up to 20 but mostly only a few. COE—at least 2097 birds, 30 March to 29 May.
1986: 730 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 31 October; most were recorded flying south, including 703 recorded from LH. Eighty bird-days were logged to the end of August. The maximum day total—195 birds—was recorded on 8 September, which heralded the beginning of the main passage period. This continued for two weeks and produced 542 bird-days. A further 96 bird-days were logged to 5 October, and there were only two more records—singles on 9th and 31 October.
1987: 891 bird-days, 19 August to 25 October; only seven bird-days after 3 October; 860 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals 165 on 20th and 430 on 28 August.
1988 (Ho): 157 bird-days, 8 September to 8 October.
1989: common during 16-27 September, maxima 500 flying south on 18th and 200 on 27th; five at TH and one south past LH on 9 October, and singles south on 19th, 20th and 25 October.
1990: 69 bird-days, highest day totals 17 on 22 August and 15 on 17 September; all before 23 October.
Though the Sand Martin is common, it evidently does not pass in ‘great numbers’ as reported by La Touche.

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica LT—passes from the first week of September to mid-October. H—seen commonly in summer; last autumn dates range from 28 September to 1 October. COE—at least 7222, 1 April to 1 June.
1986: 15,159 bird-days were logged from 24 August to 10 November; most were recorded flying south, including 13,188 recorded from LH. Though this species was seen commonly at most localities, it was only systematically recorded at LH in an effort to ensure a standard for gauging the passage; exception was made only where it was felt significant numbers of actively migrating birds were involved which would not be logged at the LH watchpoint. To 6 September, 845 bird-days were logged, and during the subsequent four weeks—the main passage period—the numbers noted were: 1986 during 7th-13th, 2375 during 14th-20th, 4489 during 21-27 September, and 3057 during 28 September to 4 October. Thereafter, passage dropped markedly, coinciding with a sharp fall in the maximum temperature: 814 and 987 bird-days, respectively, were recorded in the subsequent two week periods. November produced a total of 66 bird-days, with 45 birds recorded on 1st. The highest day total was 1495 on 24 September.
1987: at least 65,532 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 9 November; 61,530 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals were 2000 on 17th, 1400 on 21st, 4500 on 25th, 1200 on 26 September, 13,000 on 2nd and 10,000 on 3 October. Identification of distant swallows (this species and the following, Red-rumped Swallow) was often based on ratios of specifically identified birds (passing close enough for diagnostic features to be seen); on days of heavy passage, numbers were gauged by making five minute counts and multiplying these to cover following intervals without counts.
1988 (Ho): not systematically recorded.
1989: common from 15 September to early October, highest numbers 13,000 flying south on 18th and 2000 on 27 September and 2000 on 5 October; 480 recorded from LH watchpoint, flying south (not systematically recorded at other localities, though not noted in large numbers), 8-29 October, when highest day totals 93 on 15th and 104 on 19 October.
1990: not systematically recorded before 23 October. From 23 October, one was at Re on 26 October, and singles recorded from LH, flying south, on 24th and 29 October, 5th and 14 November.

Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica LT—passes first week of August to first week of October, the majority having passed by 21 September. H—breeds at Beidaihe; last autumn dates in three years ranged from 28 September to 1 October. COE—at least 1468, 2 April to 1 June.
1986: 7812 bird-days, 26 August to 23 October, making this species about half as numerous as the Barn Swallow (cf. spring 1985 totals). As with the Barn Swallow, emphasis was placed on recording birds migrating past LH; 6079 were recorded flying south past this locality. Locally breeding birds were present at the beginning of the survey and passage was not evident until 26 August, when the first birds were seen flying south at LH. Numbers peaked a week later than for the Barn Swallow, with 5385 (about 69 percent) of birds occurring from 28 September to 4 October, ahead of a sharp fall in maximum temperature; 561 were recorded flying south in the week prior to this period and 925 during the week after. The maximum day count was 2701 on 4 October.
1987: at least 65,489 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 25 October; 65,069 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals 18,500 on 25th, 4800 on 26th, 1000 on 27th and 30 September, 7000 on 2nd and 30,000 on 3 October. The latter date marked the end of the main passage; 610 were recorded after this day. See also Barn Swallow, re recording methods.
1988 (Ho): not systematically recorded.
1989: common from 15 September to early October, when maxima 2000 migrating on 18th and 5000 on 27 September and 2000 on 5 October; 494 recorded from LH watchpoint, flying south (not systematically recorded at other localities, though not noted in large numbers), 8-28 October; highest day totals 305 on 9th and 119 on 12 October.
1990: not systematically recorded before 23 October. From 23 October, one recorded from LH, flying south, on 26th, and two at Se on 30 October.

Barn Swallow/Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo rustica/H. daurica COE—at least 2055.
1986: 49,099 unidentified swallows were recorded flying south from 20 August to 29 October. Tallies included 14,489 from 7th-13th, 5380 from 14th-20th and 11309 from 21-27 September, and 8438 from 28 September to 4 October. The peak day count was 5615 on 12 September.
1989: 182 recorded from LH watchpoint, flying south, 11-12 October.

Common House-Martin Delichon urbica LT—one record, 18 May 1913 (was D.u. whiteleyi); notes that Wilder had reported seeing a few pairs of house-martins breeding on rocks in the mountains to the north of Qinhuangdao. WH—’The name house martin seems a misnomer as it is found here only in remote mountains with high rock cliffs and running water. It is a summer resident in colonies across the province from Shanhaikuan to Hsiao Wu T’ai Shan. … This seems a new subspecies much smaller than [D]. urbica urbica or [D]. urbica whiteleyi.’ Later (Wilder & Hubbard 1926) noted that the specimens were D.u. nigrimentalis, not previously known in the Palaearctic. H—no records. Sh—’Fohkien House Martin’ D.u. nigrimentalis is a summer visitor to Hebei, ‘Siberian House Martin’ D.u. whiteleyi is a rare summer visitor. COE—21 birds, 10 April to 20 May.
The literature seems contradictory over which species, or sub-species, of house-martin breeds in Hebei. Cheng states that D.u. nigrimentalis is sometimes regarded as a race of the Asian House-Martin D. dasypus, but only gives records for southeastern and southern China, and lists a race of Common House Martin, D.u. lagopoda as breeding in and migrating through Hebei. He notes that this race has also been called D.u. whiteleyi; yet Wilder and Hubbard note this is larger than the birds they found breeding. Meyer de Schauensee suggests that house-martins found breeding in northern Hebei by David and Oustalet (1877) may have been Asian House-Martins D. dasypus dasypus, which have been recorded on migration on the coast of Jiangsu and in Fujian province—and in Hong Kong, where Common House-Martin has not been recorded. He does not mention the records by Wilder and Hubbard.
The following records are for birds believed to be Common House-Martins.
1986: 30 birds were recorded from 26 August to 4 October: 18 during 26-31 August, five from 5th-12th, three on 22nd, one on 25th and two on 29 September, and finally one on 4 October. All except two were seen from LH. As in spring 1985, we checked when possible for features that might suggest birds were Asian House-Martins, especially the smoky grey wash on the underparts (mentioned by de Schauensee 1984, and evident on Asian House-Martins seen in Hong Kong). On all birds seen well, the underparts were clean white, in accordance with them being Common House-Martins.
1987: 78 bird-days, 28 August to 18 November; 69 were recorded flying south, including 54 on 19 September.
1988 (Ho): nine birds, 30 September.
1989: three flew south: two on 9th and one on 13 October.
1990: five were seen on 29 September.

Asian House-Martin Delichon dasypus
1987: a bird considered to be this species, 20 November.
1988 (Ho): a bird considered to be this species, 9 November.
See also Common House-Martin.
[header=Wagtails and Pipits]
Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus LT—passes in May, but no mention of autumn records. H—summer visitor, breeds. COE—138 bird-days, main arrival 14-16 May, remaining to breed. Ch—breeds throughout northeast China.
1986: seen from 19 August to 24 September. During the period to 9 September, the species was merely noted as present, still on breeding territory (at LH) and was not systematically recorded. A small number were seen from LH, apparently heading south—e.g. singles on 30 August, 1st and 10 September. From 10 September, all sightings were recorded when it became apparent that numbers had declined; we should have begun recording well before this date as, in the event, only 16 bird-days were logged to the end of passage. The highest count after 9 September was of eight flying south past LH on 12th.
1987: 191 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 11 September; 90 were recorded flying south; the highest day totals were 21 (six present, 15 flying south) on 25th and 22 (six present, 16 flying south) on 28 August.
1988 (Ho): 18 bird-days, 9-21 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 73 bird-days, highest day totals ten on 23rd and 11 on 24 August; all before 23 October.

Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava LT—’immense flocks’ pass from the latter half of August to late September. H—seen from 17th and 18 August to 13 October and 11 September during two years. COE—1502 bird-days, 8 April to 1 June.
1986: 6719 bird-days, 20 August to 13 October; most were seen flying south, including 3647 recorded from LH. The main passage was during the three-week period 27 August to 16 September, when 2368, 2098 and 1188 bird-days were logged in successive weeks, making 5654 bird-days in total. The peak day count was 1438 (flying south, including 1095 recorded from SF) on 6 September. Seventy-seven bird-days were logged during October. Only 11 were racially identified. Of these, seven were M.f. simillima—singles on 29th and 30 August, 8th, 12th, 15th and 24 September and 2nd and 3 October (same bird on last two dates); two were M.f. macronyx—singles on 18th and 22 September, and one M.f. plexa was seen on 26 September.
1987: 7779 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 23 October; 7294 were recorded flying south, including 6389 from 18 August to 16 September. Highest day totals 910 on 30 August and 740 on 10 September.
1988 (Ho): 2066 bird-days, 8 September to 18 October; 530 were recorded on 12 September; only 71 bird-days in October.
1989: almost daily in small numbers from 16 September to early October; 35 bird-days (26 flew south), 8-26 October; highest day total 24 (all flying south) on 12 October.
1990: 2275 bird-days, highest day totals 382 on 24th and 227 on 31 August; all before 23 October.
We did not see ‘immense flocks’, as La Touche reported passing Qinhuangdao.

Citrine Wagtail (Yellow-hooded Wagtail) Motacilla citreola LT—no records. H—two spring records. COE—11 bird-days, 19 April to 20 May. Ch—breeds in northeast Hebei, migrates through the province.
1986: one flew south past LH on 17 September.
1987: one bird, 30 August.
1989: ‘Few’ seen 16-19 September.

Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea LT—no records at Qinhuangdao, but two or three at foot of mountains in spring. H—no autumn records. COE—66 bird-days, 8 April to 31 May. Ch—breeds in Hebei.
1986: 151 bird-days, 21 August to 23 October. Twenty-one bird-days were logged in August and 88 during the first half of September, which proved to be the main passage period; 12 bird-days were logged from 30 September to 14 October; the final record was one on 23 October. The highest day total was 14 on 7 September; 63 were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 187 bird-days, 22 August to 3 November; 158 were recorded flying south, including 133 from 29 August to 1 October; the highest day totals were 14 (flying south) on 30 August and 11 (flying south) on 10 September.
1988 (Ho): 53 bird-days, 9 September to 17 October.
1989: 15 bird-days, 17 September to 7 October, maximum six on 25 September; eight bird-days (two flew south), 8 October to 6 November.
1990: 91 bird-days, highest day totals ten on 29th and 30 August and 12 on 15 September; all before 23 October.

White Wagtail Motacilla alba LT—M. a. leucopsis not often seen; M. a. ocularis passes from about mid-September to mid-October. H—seen between 4 September and 29 October (all White Wagtails); one M.a. baicalensis/M.a. leucopsis seen 14 October, at least four M.a. ocularis 25 September to 22 October. COE—724 bird-days, 17 March to 22 May.
1986: 2399 bird-days, 21 August to 17 November; 1470 were recorded from LH, flying south. Passage peaked about two weeks later than the Yellow Wagtail, during 10-30 September, when 1218 bird-days were logged; the highest day totals were 172 (flying south—165 recorded from LH, seven from SF) on 14th and 134 (121 recorded from LH, flying south; 13 at or overflying SF/Se). Passage was less concentrated than for the Yellow Wagtail. Single M.a. baicalensis were recorded on 25th and 31 August. There were 19 bird-days for M.a. leucopsis from 26 August to 30 September, and 14 for M.a. ocularis from 21 September to 2 November.
1987: 3662 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 11 November; 3208 were recorded flying south, including 2046 from 22 September to 11 October. Highest day totals of birds flying south were 320 on 25th, 334 on 26th, 345 on 27th, 314 on 28 September and 280 on 7 October.
1988 (Ho): 1976 bird-days, 8 September to 30 October; highest totals 247 on 12th, 485 over 20th-22nd, 195 on 30 September and 213 on 8 October.
1989: almost daily from 15 September to early October, 100 flew south on 18 September; 255 bird-days (65 flew south) were logged for White Wagtails of undetermined subspecies, 8 October to 6 November; highest day total 53 on 13 October. Five bird-days were logged for M.a. leucopsis: one at Re on 9th, two at the same locality on 14th and singles flying south on 23rd and 30 October. Fourteen bird-days were logged for M.a. ocularis: one at SF on 9th, and 12 at Re and one at LP on 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 1182 bird-days, highest day totals 101 on 14th, 135 on 17th and 202 on 29 September. From 23 October, ten bird-days (one was recorded flying south) for White Wagtails of undetermined subspecies, 23 October to 6 November; all were singles other than five on 4 November. Ten of subspecies M.a. baicalensis were at Re on 29 October.

Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi Weigold—the southern limit of the breeding area perhaps lies not very far (from Hebei) as the migration began again in the grassy hills by the sea near Beidaihe as early as 16 August (1916). LT—’exceedingly abundant throughout September on the plain. Large flocks of this birds may also be seen passing during that month.’ H—seen daily or every few days, 8 August to 4th or perhaps 10 October. COE—950 bird-days, 10 April to 1 June.
1986: 5951 bird-days, 20 August to 26 October; 4800 were recorded from LH, flying south. Significant passage began on 27 August and the main passage a week later, with 4192 bird-days (70 percent of the total) logged from 3-23 September. Continued passing in some numbers until 7 October, after which date there were 35 bird-days, only six of which were from 15th to the last record on 26 October. The highest day totals were 505 (all flying south: 468 recorded from LH, 22 from SF and 15 from Se) on 13th, 373 (flying south) on 17th and 438 (flying south) on 19 September. This was one of the main species in the early morning movements of small passerines. As in spring 1985, it may be that our records of ‘Richard’s Pipits’ include some of the similar Blyth’s Pipits Anthus godlewskii, though the latter species is apparently far less common at Beidaihe (see below).
1987: 6414 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 21 October; 5990 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals of birds flying south were 901 on 10th, 700 on 18th, 439 on 19th, 588 on 21st and 335 on 26 September.
1988 (Ho): 5173 bird-days, 8 September to 18 October; highest day totals 785 on 16th and 645 on 18 September.
1989: daily from 14 September to early Octover, when 110 flew south on 17th and 155 on 18 September; 28 bird-days (six flew south), 8-17 October; highest count ten at TH on 9 October.
1990: 4091 bird-days, highest day totals 420 on 15th, 970 on 21 September; all before 23 October.

Blyth’s Pipit Anthus godlewskii LT, H, COE—no records. WH—passed in numbers at Beijing 15-23 August 1918, seen at the Western Tombs 10 October 1919; Hemmingsen and Guildal (1968) note that Wilder and Hubbard have reported the species from Beidaihe, but are uncertain whether they obtained specimens. Sh—notes that Wilder and Hubbard obtained specimens at three localities in Hebei, in May, August and September.
1987: singles flew south on 7th and 11th, and two flew south on 10th and 17 September (identified on the basis of call, though the observers did not have previous experience of the species).
1988 (Ho): singles flew south on 16th and 18th September.
1990: singles were recorded on 3rd and 11 September.

Olive-backed Pipit (Olive Tree-Pipit) Anthus hodgsoni LT—abundant spring migrant; passes again from the first week in September to the first week in October, late individual 14 November 1914. H—seen from 2 September to 1 November in two autumns; probably heard as late as 18 November 1943. Usually seen ‘in smaller numbers’. COE—1285 bird-days, 18 April to 25 May.
1986: 2176 bird-days were logged from 22 August to 20 November. The first record—of a single bird—was not followed until 10 September. The main passage was during 17-30 September, when 1340 bird-days (about 66 percent of the total) were logged. In the week before this period 313 bird-days were logged, and 321 in the week after. The maximum day total was 250 on 24 September. Like the Richard’s Pipit, this species featured prominently in the early morning small passerine movements—1754 birds, about 81 percent of the total, were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 2652 bird-days, throughout the survey though there was only one bird (on 22 August) until 7 September and after 5 November there were just four sightings, of an injured bird present from 13-24 November; 2321 were recorded flying south. Highest day totals of birds flying south were 130 on 15th, 327 on 18th and 268 on 21 September.
1988 (Ho): 1759 bird-days, 9 September to 18 November; highest day total 508 on 19 September.
1989: almost daily from 14 September to early October, when highest day total 140 flying south on 18 September; 68 bird-days (14 flew south), 9-31 October; highest day totals 16 on 12th and 14 on 13 October.
1990: before 23 October, 1153 bird-days, highest day totals 293 on 15th, 120 on 18th and 127 on 21 September. From 23 October, 34 bird-days (13 were recorded flying south), throughout the period; only recorded on two dates after 7 November, though highest day total was eight (six present, two flying south) on 11 November.

Pechora Pipit Anthus gustavi LT—passes in May; not common. H—no records. COE—at least nine, 10 May to 1 June. Ch—migrates through east and northeast coastal areas.
1986: four birds were recorded: one from LH, flying south, on 19th, one at TH on 24th and two at Re on 28 September.
1987: 47 bird-days, 4 September to 5 October; all but one were recorded flying south (total may include a few Buff-bellied Pipits, as the call may be confused: Hornskov 1989); highest day total 20 on 18 September.
1988 (Ho): 21 bird-days, 8-26 September.
1990: 53 bird-days, highest day totals eight on 21st, and six on 20th, 22nd and 24 September; all before 23 October.

Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus LT—passes in September. H—no records. WH (corr)—passing in numbers, early September 1924. COE—162 bird-days, 28 April to 20 May. Ch—migrates through east, northeast and central China.
1986: 612 bird-days were logged from 5 September to 13 October. The main passage was spread over the three-week period 10-30 September, when 165, 192 and 167 bird-days were logged in successive weeks, making 524 bird-days in all. The highest day total was 92 on 24 September; 253—about 41 percent of the bird-day total—were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 289 bird-days, 5 September to 16 October; 254 were recorded flying south, including 218 between 7th and 26 September; highest day total 53 on 18 September.
1988 (Ho): 549 bird-days, 8 September to 14 October.
1989: almost daily from 14 September to early October, when highest day total 34 flying south on 18 September; 11 bird-days (nine flew south), 10-24 October; eight flew south over 12-14 October.
1990: 370 bird-days, highest day totals 35 on 5th, 58 on 21st, 35 on 28th and 36 on 29 September; all before 23 October.

‘Water Pipits’: Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta blakistoni and Buff-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens japonicus
LT—the Buff-bellied Pipit migrates in autumn ‘in company with the Wagtails and Swallows, many flocks of which fly by in late August and September. I have seen it in the marshes in October until the 25th of that month.’ Water Pipit found in the vicinity of Qinhuangdao in October and November; ‘It probably winters near unfrozen streams.’ WH—observations in the field may have been confused, and late spring records of Water Pipits may refer to the Buff-bellied Pipit. Water Pipits were ‘Common around the icy edges of clear mountain water all winter. They disappear late in April. My earliest autumn dates are in December but they doubtless arrive from the north much earlier.’ Only records of Buff-bellied Pipits were a specimen taken 2 May, and 2-25 September ‘seen in thousands’. H—saw many pipits which he believed were ‘this species’ (Water/Buff-bellied Pipits); only certain autumn dates 5 November 1942, 18 November 1944 (one shot; Buff-bellied Pipit). At Beijing on 2 January and 11 February 1946 saw several probable Water Pipits and one probable Buff-bellied Pipit. COE—384 bird-days, 24 March to 20 May.
1986: 1256 bird-days, 26 September to the end of the survey; 953 were recorded from LH, flying south. The main passage was from 8 October to 4 November, with 465 bird-days logged during the first two weeks of this period and 596 during the latter two; the highest day totals were 76 (flying south) on 11th, 101 (flying south) on 25 October and 90 (flying south) on 2 November. Favoured localities for birds present were Re and SF.
1987: 3888 bird-days, 22 September to 22 November; 3691 were recorded flying south, including 3040 from 12-26 October; highest day totals of south-flying birds were 440 on 14th, 400 on 21st and 450 on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): 2769 bird-days, 19 September to 16 November; 1978 were recorded from 11-18 October.
1989: seen from 5 October; 2455 bird-days (2390 flew south) were logged for ‘water’ pipits, 8 October to 16 November; highest day totals 633 on 13th and 330 on 20 October. Nine bird-days were logged for the Water Pipit: one at Re and six at YH on 13 October, and two at TH on 16 November; also five ‘water’ pipits which were probably this species were seen flying south on 16 November. Four Buff-bellied Pipits were seen at Re on 13 October.
1990: ‘water’ pipits: before 23 October, 522 bird-days, highest day total 85 on 18 October. From 23 October, 275 bird-days (255 were recorded flying south), throughout the period though scarcer in November—180 were recorded flying south from 23-27 October. Water Pipit: before 23 October, seven bird-days. From 23 October, three at Re on 29th and one at SF on 30 October, and two at YH on 16 November. Buff-bellied Pipit: singles were recorded on 20 October, at YH on 15th and Re on 16 November.
Our observations do not substantiate La Touche’s assertion that Buff-bellied Pipits pass in late August and September, which may have been based more on an assumption that they would have been with the flocks of pipits, wagtails and other birds than on observation or collection of the species (which he notes seeing in October). However, Wilder & Hubbard reported ‘thousands’ in September.
Until autumn 1989, we did not separate the two species, as they had not been ‘split’ before the survey, and rather few grounded birds were seen. It seems likely that the majority will have been Buff-bellied Pipits; and it appears that the Water Pipit tends to be more a winter visitor to the region than a passage migrant.
[header=Minivet, Bulbuls, Shrikes]
Ashy Minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus LT—a couple seen 29 September. WH—rare migrant in August. H—16-18 dates over three autumns, 14th (or 12) September to 7th or possibly 12 October. COE—15 bird-days, 16-21 May.
1986: 396 bird-days were logged from 9 September to 16 October; 281 were recorded from LH, flying south. Numbers built up rapidly at the beginning of passage; 185 bird-days were logged to 15th and 110 in the following week to 23 September. Thereafter numbers declined considerably—there were 73 in the week to 30 September, 22 in the first week of October and six more to the end of the passage. The highest day total was 65 (56 recorded from LH, flying south; nine at or overflying Se). Favoured localities for birds lingering in the area were the wooded areas of LH and WH.
1987: 517 bird-days, 8 September to 24 October; 386 were recorded flying south, including 344 from 10 September to 1 October; highest day totals of birds flying south were 31 on 16th, 73 on 18th and 47 on 26 September, and of birds present, 25 on 29 September and 8 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 109 bird-days, 9 September to 11 October.
1989: singles flew south on 17th and 27 September; 19 bird-days (one flew south), 9-30 October; 14 bird-days over 11-13 October.
1990: 335 bird-days, highest day totals 35 on 12th, 104 on 14th and 62 on 17 September; all before 23 October.

Chinese Bulbul (Light-vented Bulbul) Pycnonotus sinensis LT, H, COE—no records. Sh—one record, an adult female taken at Tanggu on 6 May 1935. Ch—’occasionally … to Hebei.’
1986: two were at YH on 25 October and one was at Se on 19th and 20 November.
1987: two birds on 11th and 12 November.
1988 (Ho): one bird seen on four days, 14-18 November.
1989: 84 bird-days, 8 October to 16 November; highest count four until 27 October, when six at Se; numbers peaked at ten on 7 November; there were nine on 3rd and eight on 11 November; at least three were present on 16 November.
1990: before 23 October, eight bird-days. From 23 October, recorded at Se on four dates: two on 30th and 31 October, heard (number not known) on 1st, and eight birds on 4 November.
Our records suggest a northward extension of the species’ range, perhaps resulting from milder winters.

Brown-eared Bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1986: ten bird-days were logged from 3-17 November. All records were from LH and it seems likely that only two to four birds were involved. Singles were seen on 3rd, 4th, 6th (a male), 9th and 10th, two on 15th and 17th, and one on 18 November.

Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus LT—two males shot at Shanhaiguan, 26 May 1914, and a nest in the mountains; collector considered this species very rare. H—singles on 20 May 1943 and 5 June 1944; report of a bird which may have been this species 6 June 1945. Sh—passing migrant and summer visitor. COE—a male on 27 May.
1988 (Ho): a juvenile at Re on 10 September.

Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus LT—evidently a rare migrant at Qinhuangdao; specimen from Shanhaiguan, April 1913 (collector said they had been passing in that month), one seen 31 March and 1 April 1914. H—no records. Sh—not uncommon at the Eastern Tombs; occurs on the plain in May and September. COE—one seen, 10 April.
1987: two on 14 October.
1990: one on 20 October.

Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus LT—common from about 20 August to the end of September. H—common on migration, 18 August to 26 September. Seen ‘practically daily’. COE—657 bird-days, 30 April to 1 June.
1986: 257 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 26 September, dates which tally exactly with La Touche’s earliest and Hemmingsen’s latest (though we only arrived on 19 August); 146 bird-days were logged during August, a further 59 in the first week of September and 36 in the second; the last 12 days of the passage period saw 16 bird-days logged. The highest day count was 40 on 25 August. Favoured localities were the open areas, especially at YH, Legation Gully and FP.
1987: 321 bird-days, beginning of the survey to the second week of October; 271 bird-days to 11 September.
1988 (Ho): 81 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 24 September.
1989: five on 16th, two on 21st and one on 28 September.
1990: 280 bird-days, highest day totals 32 on 25 August, 29 on 4th and 27 on 10 September; all before 23 October.

Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor LT—one shot at the hills northwest of Qinhuangdao on 12 October 1911, and one shot at the port on 25 October 1914. H—no records. COE—singles during 18-21 March and on 21 April.
1989: one flew south over LH on 27 October and one was at Re on 8 November.

Chinese Grey Shrike Lanius sphenocercus LT—’found sparingly in spring, but much more commonly on the return passage, when it may be seen from the beginning of September, throughout October, and in November. A number winter in the district.’ H—one record, 14 September 1944. Galsworthy (in litt.)—one near ‘swamp’ (Re?) on at least one date from 28 August to 6 September 1981, and one at the same place on 2nd and 3 September 1983. COE—no records.
1986: there were seven records of singles at YH on 20 August (probably adult), 25 September, 4th, 7th (adult male) and 9 October and 17 November. Another was seen flying south over Lighthouse Point on 5 September. It may be that five individuals were involved. On 4 October, an impaled Eurasian Tree Sparrow seen at YH was probably a Chinese Grey Shrike’s prey, and the bird on 17 November was seen to catch a small rodent.
1987: two on 13th, one on 24 October, one flew south on 8 November and one on 15th and 16 November.
1989: one at Re on 8 November.
1990: one was seen from 7-10 September.
It appears this species is scarcer than in La Touche’s time. However, it may be that rather few land at Beidaihe; we have regularly found ones and twos on late autumn visits to estuarine areas south of Beidaihe (see below, ‘Visits to other localities’).
[header=Waxwings, Orioles, Drongos and Starlings]
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus LT—of irregular occurrence; in autumn only on 21 November 1915, when there were a few for sale in the market. Weigold—some on 5 February 1916. H—flocks seen by another observer January or February 1944; two to four birds on eight dates during April 1945. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei. COE—242 bird-days, 15 March to 21 April.
1986: four birds were recorded, all at LH: one on 9th and three (two of which were flying south) on 15 November.
1987: two on 30th and one on 31 October and one on 7 November.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 4-15 November. Interestingly, large numbers were seen the following spring—3081 bird-days (highest day total 300), from observers’ arrival at the town on 9 March to 19 April (Holt 1990), yet the autumn records give no inkling of a large irruption.
1989: an unidentified waxwing which flew south on 29 October was probably this species; one was at Se, with six Japanese Waxwings, on 16 November.
1990: one flew south on 2nd and five were at LH on 3 November (latter were probably the same as five unidentified waxwings seen at this locality on 2nd).

•(NT)Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica LT, H—no records. WH—very rare accidental visitor to Hebei. COE—two birds, 11 April. M—winters south to Hebei and Shandong. Ch—migrant Hebei.
1986: 31 bird-days were recorded from 30 October to 20 November; the records probably involved about 24 individuals. The period to 6 November saw nine bird-days logged, there were 11 during 7th-10th and during 14-20 November. Most records were from LH; five birds were at Se and one at EG.
1987: one on 30th and 31 October.
1988 (Ho): four bird-days, 29 October to 18 November.
1989: 90 bird-days, 1-16 November; flock of 18 at LH on 1st, 20 at the same locality the following day, 11 on 3rd; other notable day totals 13 (eight at LH, five at Se) on 9th and 11 on 13 November.
1990: recorded on three dates in October and six in November. In October: one at LH on 24th and singles flew south on 25th and 26th. In November: singles at LH on 2nd, 3rd and 4th, seven flew south on 5th, two at LH on 6th and at nearby Temple Beach on 7th.

Bohemian Waxwing/Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus/B. japonica
1986: eight on 15th and singles on 17th and 18 November.

Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis LT—breeds, departing in September. Wilder (1925)—’the trees have developed so finely that … several pairs of ring doves, woodpeckers, orioles, Japanese titmice [Great Tits] now breed here regularly, whereas they were never seen years ago.’ H—commonly breeds, latest dates in three autumns within the range 15-25 September. COE—77 bird-days were recorded from 7 May; present at the end of the survey in suitable breeding localities.
1986: present at the beginning of the survey; last record on 23 September. Until 11 September, birds not apparently actively migrating were not systematically recorded, as it was apparent that local breeding birds remained in the area. After this date all records were logged. Birds were first noted flying south on 30 August, and 158 south-flying birds were recorded from LH from 30 August to 14 September, with high counts of 25 on 7th, 17 on 9th and 15th and 21 on 8 September; subsequently, there were no more than three in a day. The highest day total of birds present was 18 (12 at LH, two at LP, three at Legation Gully and one at FP) on 20 August, the only date before 11 September when all birds present were recorded; only one to two were noted as present from 11 September. LH was the main location for birds present.
1987: 534 bird-days (235 flew south), beginning of the survey to 25 September. First noted flying south on 31 August; from this date to 16 September, 228 were recorded flying south. The highest day totals of south flying birds were 76 on 1st, 30 on 2nd and 47 on 12 September, and of birds present 70 on 3rd and 25 on 11 September.
1988 (Ho): 90 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 22 September; highest day total 27 on 17 September.
1989: one at LH on 22 September.
1990: 448 bird-days, highest day totals 39 on 29 August, 63 on 4th and 51 on 9 September; all before 23 October.

Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus LT—one on 24 August; extremely abundant during September. ‘Sometimes it forms huge noisy parties on some solitary tree in the fields. … The birds when passing fly in very scattered order, and appear to come from an easterly or north-easterly direction.’ Breeds in mountains north of Qinhuangdao. H—recorded from 16 August to 18 September, no more than four to seven in a day, absent in autumn 1942. ‘It thus seems, that, like many other birds, the bulk of the drongos in autumn passes toward W far N of PTH [Beidaihe], only a few, occasionally, appearing there as in 1944 and 1945.’ COE—77 bird-days, from 7 May. Ch—breeds northeastern provinces; status: common in eastern China.
1986: 464 bird-days were logged from 21 August to 12 October; 452 were recorded from LH, flying south. Main passage was during 6-17 September, when 442 bird-days were logged and there were counts of 94 on 7th, 65 on 10th and 50 on 15th. The only record after 21 September was of a late bird on 12 October.
1987: 189 bird-days, 20 August to 23 September (155 flew south); the highest day totals of birds flying south were 33 on 6th, 43 on 7th and 38 on 12 September; only seven bird-days were logged after 16 September.
1988 (Ho): 90 bird-days, 9-13 September; highest day totals 51 on 9th and 26 on 11 September.
1989: one at LH on 24 September.
1990: 365 bird-days, highest day totals 105 on 11th, 53 on 14th and 38 on 17 September; all before 23 October.
Hemmingsen had found this species more common in spring than in autumn, the opposite of La Touche’s experience and the findings of the spring 1985 and recent autumn surveys. This apparently largely results from him not seeing actively migrating birds in autumn. Unlike La Touche, we did not find the species extremely abundant, or see huge noisy parties. This may, as Hemmingsen suggests, result from the bulk of the drongos heading towards the west (inland) to the north of Beidaihe, or may indicate a substantial decrease in numbers.

Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus LT, H, COE—no records. WH—summer visitor in well wooded gorges of the hills in Hebei; not common, but a regular visitor. Taken in the vicinity of Beijing on several occasions, 18 May and after. Sh—very rare, breeds; May to September; Shaw had seen this species near Beijing on migration. Ch—accidentally in Hebei.
1987: one on 9th, two on 12th and 13th, and singles on 18th, 19th and 23 November; maybe only two individuals.
1989: one was at Study Gully on 19 October.
1990: one on 22 September.

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris LT—no records. WH—a hunter shot two near Beijing on 4 April 1920. H—one shot at Beidaihe (by B. Travers-Smith) on 1 June 1946. COE—42 bird-days, 18 March to 2 April. Ch—vagrant to eastern China; recorded in Hebei, Shandong, Fujian and Guandong provinces.
1987: two flew south on 24th and one flew south on 27 October.
1988 (Ho): one seen 15 October.
1989: two were at Se on 23 October.

Purple-backed Starling Sturnus sturninus LT—large flocks may be seen in August; saw a few at Qinhuangdao itself from 6 August to 2 September. Weigold (1922-1924)—a flock (swarm), 12 August (1916). H—only recorded in spring. Sh—rare breeding summer visitor. COE—45 bird-days, 16-22 May.
1987: 95 bird-days (four flew south), 31 August to 12 September; highest day totals ten on 1st and 80 on 3 September.
1989: singles flew south on 12th and 13 October.
1990: one was seen on 15 September.
1986, 1988: no records.

White-cheeked Starling (Grey Starling) Sturnus cineraceus LT—4 July to the beginning of September. On 4 July 1914, ‘thousands came over from the north-east, flying south-west. Flocks containing from fifty to over three hundred individuals followed one another rapidly during the afternoon, and the passage lasted two hours or more. This was the only passage of this kind noticed by me here. … However, on the 24th of July, 1915 I saw a large flock of Starlings which were probably this species, so that it is likely the main flights during other summers were overlooked. … it is probable that some summer here.’ H—common, especially in July (e.g. largest number seen at Beidaihe was 200 on 10 July 1944, several flocks on 23 July 1942), latest date 1 October. COE—2126 bird-days, 18 March to 30 May.
1986: 760 bird-days were logged from 23 August to 28 October. The main passage period was 27 September to 10 October, when 618 bird-days were logged; highest day total 240 on 27 September; 645 were seen from LH, flying south.
1987: 1401 bird-days (396 flew south), 19 August to 31 October; 908 bird-days logged from observations of birds flying to roost over Re from 30 August to 3 September (roost counts included 300 on 30 August, 350 on 1st and 250 on 3 September); highest day totals of birds flying south 100 on 15 September and 49 on 4 October.
1988 (Ho): 386 bird-days, 12 September to 26 October; 95 seen on 12 September and 162 bird-days logged from 7-18 October.
1989: seven were recorded on 20th, eight on 25th and 121 flew south on 26 September; 68 bird-days (23 flew south), 12-17 October; one at LP on 27 October.
1990: before 23 October, 671 bird-days, highest day totals 117 on 22nd and 318 on 23 September. The only record after 23 October was one at YH on 15 November.

Unidentified starlings Sturnus spp.
1986: 141 unidentified starlings were recorded from 23 August to 28 October, with a peak count of 33 on 10 October. Most—110 birds—were seen from LH, flying south, and it is likely that most or all were White-cheeked Starlings.
1987: 19 bird-days (16 flew south), 22 August to 15 September.
[header=Crows]
Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius LT—breeds in mountains to the north of Qinhuangdao but not seen at the port itself. WH—rare resident in wooded hills of Hebei. H, COE—no records.
1986: 31 bird-days were logged from 25 September to 15 November, and a feather was found on 11 September. The records were spread over the whole period of occurrence, with perhaps a slight concentration during the latter half of October; no more than two in a day. All were seen at LH.
1987: one on 6th, two on 20th and three on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): one seen, 2 October.
1989: two at LH on 24 September; 154 bird-days, 8 October to 14 November; mainly at LH, where highest count 12 on 11 November and ten birds seen on six days.
1990: no records.

Blue Magpie (Red-billed Magpie) Urocissa erythrorhyncha LT—common in hilly parts near Qinhuangdao; breeds. Wilder (1940)—’Mrs. Willard Simpson says one has haunted their orchards at East Cliff during the past autumn… donkey boys and residents at "Lotus Hills" insist that at least up to Chinese New Year time a flock of the [Blue Magpies] has lived in the thickest part of the young forest there.’ H, COE—no records.
1986: 48 bird-days were recorded from 8 September to 12 November. Ten bird-days were logged from four dates to 4 October and 17 from 8-13 October. There were six more bird-days from three dates before the final record and highest day total of 15 birds on 12 November. Most records were from LH, and it is possible that birds were lingering in the area. Hemmingsen made rather few observations at LH, and this may account for his lack of records.
1987: 87 bird-days, 16 September to 21 November; highest day totals eight on 1st, 11 on 5th and ten on 10 November.
1988 (Ho): at least 73 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 15 November; seen at LH and around the Diplomatic Personnel Guest House; highest day total six birds.
1989: often at LH from 18 September to early October; 177 bird-days, 8 October to 14 November; mainly at LH, where highest count 14 on 11 October.
1990: before 23 October, 13 on 23 August (highest count in the early autumn?). From 23 October, 96 bird-days, throughout the period; other than two at Se on 4 November, all records from LH, where noted on 19 dates (sometimes heard only), and highest counts 18 on 5th and 15 on 6 November—otherwise eight or less seen.
This species has become regular at Beidaihe, suggesting a (local) population increase.

Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus LT, H—no records. WH—’Erratic wanderer in flocks, on the plain abundant for a few months and then disappearing for the same period in any given locality.’ COE—two records involving about 50 birds around mid-April. Ch—resident in Hebei; status: fairly common, especially in the north.
1986: five birds were at Se on 10th, one was at EG on 11th and two were at Se on 19 November.
1989: 33 bird-days, 8 October to 13 November; 17 bird-days (highest day total seven), 12-16 October; seven on 24 October; after 24 October only singles on 10th and 13 November.

Black-billed Magpie Pica pica LT, H—common resident. COE—rather common throughout the period.
1986: 441 bird-days were logged from 22 August to 18 November. The period of main occurrence was 10-30 September, when 190 bird-days were logged; a further 133 bird-days were logged from 8-28 October and the highest day count was 53 birds on 17 October. Most records were from Re and LH; from the latter locality, 136 were recorded flying south and 35 flying north, mostly during October and November.
1987: at least 1096 bird-days (birds present not systematically recorded), throughout the survey; 120 were recorded flying south from 13 October to 8 November; highest day totals of birds present 85 on 7th, 75 on 16 September and 75 on 20 October.
1988 (Ho): 616 bird-days, throughout the survey; highest count ca. 100 at Re on 19 October.
1989: not systematically recorded; evidence of migration, with 28 flying south from 23 October to 13 November, a high count of 75 birds at Re on 2 November (normally, less than 30 seen at this locality), and flocks at LH of 15 birds on 27th and 28th, and 24 on 31 October.
1990: only apparent migrants noted. Evidence of passage: three flew south before 23 October, 13 were recorded flying south, and two flying north, 26 October to 5 November; highest count of birds passing south nine on 26 October.

Eurasian Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes LT—two migrants shot near Qinhuangdao October 1911 and a female elsewhere in April 1912. H—three in December 1944 and January 1945, and one shot. These birds probably occurred as a result of a very hard winter. COE—no records. Ch—resident in northern and northeastern Hebei. Status: fairly common.
1986: one seen from LH, flying south, on 5 October.
1987: no records.
1988 (Ho): at least 187 bird-days, 19 September to 15 November; from its arrival to 4 November, recorded on all but 12 days. Birds mostly lingered around the town, sometimes in small parties of up to seven birds. There had evidently been an irruption of this species—interestingly, a large influx was also noted in Scandinavia in autumn 1988.
1989: one on 6 October; 38 bird-days, 7 October to 14 November; highest day total three birds on 19 October.
1990: one was seen on 17 September.

Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax LT—common resident in the mountains of northeast Hebei. Wilder (1940)—one at Eagle Rock in March 1940 ‘making himself at home in the holes and cracks of the cliff.’ H—no records at Beidaihe. COE—no records. 1988—one flew south over ER on 24 March (MDW pers. obs.).
1989: one flew south on 15 October.

Daurian Jackdaw Corvus dauuricus LT—passes in great numbers, with Rooks, in October and November. H—common migrant and, in contrast to Rooks, seen throughout winter. First autumn dates in four years within the range 12-25 October and migration ceased around mid-November. COE—555 bird-days, 16 March to 31 May, mainly prior to 23 April.
1986: 11,712 bird-days were logged from 10 October to 16 November. Most were recorded flying south, including 11,330 recorded from LH. The main passage was from 21 October to 5 November, when 9894 bird-days were logged and there were the highest day totals—3175 on 21st, 1175 on 29 October and 1041 on 3 November. The remainder of the passage period produced 1030 bird-days.
1987: 4403 flew south, 12 October to 12 November; highest day totals 790 on 21st, 1000 on 30 October and 660 on 4 November.
1988 (Ho): at least 1750 bird-days, 6 October to 14 November; highest day total 440 on 26 October.
1989: 4298 bird-days (4288 flew south), 8 October to 14 November; highest day totals 1167 on 15th and 1398 on 31 October; only 17 recorded to 14 October and 63 after 4 November.
1990: before 23 October, 187 bird-days. From 23 October, 1118 bird-days (all but one were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals 190 on 24th, 375 on 26 October, 125 on 1st and 187 on 9 November.
This bird tends to pass in tighter flocks than either of the following two species.

Rook Corvus frugilegus pastinator LT—passes in immense flocks, October and November. Mentions large rookeries being established at Qinhuangdao. H—’Rookeries are common … From about the last third of July and throughout the autumn flocks of some hundreds were often seen (and also the huge cloud-like flocks of 10,000 or more were noted) both at dawn … and at dusk. … 2.XI 1945 toward evening I saw from ER the largest migrations of rooks and jackdaws I have ever seen, extending as a cloud-like band across the whole bay of CHT [Qinhuangdao] apparently from long inland back of CHT [Qinhuangdao] and past King’s Point at EC [East Cliff]. What looked like young rooks passed ER for some time with slightly opened bills in scattered formation. Later many adult rooks passed.’ COE—11 birds identified from 10 April to 1 May; also 1286 bird-days logged for Rooks/Carrion Crows.
1986: 377 birds were identified from 29 August to 17 November. All except the first bird, seen at Re, were recorded from LH, flying south. The first record was not followed until 8 October; the highest counts were 103 on 3rd and 116 on 7 November. It seems likely that many of the 31,938 Rooks/Carrion Crows were this species (see below).
1987: 314 flew south, 8 October to 18 November; highest day totals 72 on 14th and 75 on 30 October.
1988 (Ho): 425 bird-days, 13 October to 15 November; highest day total 110 on 13th and 27 October.
1989: 1195 flew south, 13 October to 12 November; highest day totals 173 on 17th and 384 on 31 October.
1990: before 23 October, 175 bird-days. From 23 October, 1121 were recorded flying south, 23 October to 14 November; highest day totals 110 on 24th, 392 on 25 October, 100 on 2nd and 313 on 9 November.
The increase in numbers during recent surveys is due to observers distinguishing more Rooks and Carrion Crows.
Even if all the Rooks or Carrion Crows (see below) were Rooks, the autumn totals would still seem considerably smaller than may be expected on the basis of La Touche’s and Hemmingsen’s records; we did not see any flocks which could be described as ‘cloud-like’. This evidence of a considerable decline accords with the results of the 1985 study. Further, it appears Rooks no longer breed in the area.

Carrion Crow Corvus corone LT—migrates in small scattered parties during late October and November. H—no certain records. COE—21 bird-days, 11 April to 10 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei; resident in northern part.
1986: 328 birds were identified from 2 October to 18 November; 280 were recorded from LH, flying south. During the first two weeks of the period, 79 were recorded; there were 51 in the subsequent two weeks to 29 October, then 178 to 10 November; 20 were recorded over 17-18 November.
1987: 660 bird-days (all but three flew south), 14 October to 8 November; highest day totals 93 on 19th, 220 on 22nd and 110 on 24 October.
1988 (Ho): 187 bird-days, 6 October to 18 November.
1989: four flew south on 6 October; 242 flew south, 13 October to 12 November; highest day total 93 on 13 October.
1990: before 23 October, 16 bird-days. From 23 October, 50 bird-days (49 were recorded flying south), 24 October to 10 November; highest total of birds flying south 20 on 26 October.
See also Rook/Carrion Crow.

Rook/Carrion Crow Corvus frugilegus/C. corone COE—1286 bird-days, 16 March to 10 May.
1986: most of the Rooks/Carrion Crows recorded were not specifically identified as the vast majority were seen in flocks passing south, and were often rather distant: 31,946 bird-days were logged from 10 October to 19 November; 709 were recorded on 10th, 2387 from 11th-20th, 9238 (the peak day count) on 21 October and a further 24,623 to 5 November. All were recorded from LH; 31,931 passed south and 15 flew north.
1987: 6148 flew south, 17 October to 14 November; highest day totals 3000 on 30 October and 1075 on 4 November.
1988 (Ho): 5660 bird-days, 11 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 16,793 flew south, 8 October to 14 November; highest day totals 2693 on 9th, 2303 on 16th, 1058 on 28th and 4613 on 31 October and 1088 on 1 November.
1990: before 23 October, 856 bird-days. From 23 October, 4998 bird-days (all but seven were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals of birds flying south 1216 on 24th, 550 on 26 October, 713 on 1st and 992 on 9 November.
It is likely that the majority of the unidentified birds were Rooks. Both La Touche and Hemmingsen reported this species to be abundant in autumn, passing in large or immense flocks, whilst La Touche noted that the Carrion Crow migrates in small parties. We also found that Carrion Crows were in small scattered parties, less compact than the flocks of Rooks; when large flocks passed nearby, it was generally Rooks that were heard calling (e.g. in 1986, largely because of calls heard from flocks passing overhead—which numbered up to 900 or more, we felt that most of the 9238 birds recorded on 21 October were Rooks).

Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos LT—resident in mountains. H, COE—no records. Ch—resident in northern part of Hebei; status: fairly common.
1986: two were seen at LH on 14 November.
1987: 13 flew south: two on 8th, four on 12th, one on 14th, four on 16th and two on 25 October.
1988 (Ho): seven bird-days, 30 September to early November.
1989: two were at LH on 11th and two (same birds?) flew south past the same locality the following day; ten flew south on 13th and two flew south on 28 October.
1990: one was seen on 8th and four on 19 October.

Common Raven Corvus corax LT, H—no records. WH—common resident along the Mongolian border of Hebei. ‘It may come south to the great wall in winter.’ Sh—winter visitor near Mongolian border; rather scarce. COE—three records of singles, possibly the same bird, 24 April to 6 May (conceivably misidentified Large-billed Crow(s)—’Common Ravens’ seen at Shanhaiguan by members of the 1985 survey were almost certainly Large-billed Crows).
1986: one was seen at LH on 26 October and one (same bird?) flew south past the same locality on 1 November.
1987: two on 16th and one on 18th and 19 October.

Unidentified crows Corvid spp.
1986: 3152 unidentified crows were recorded from 21 August to 7 November; the maximum count was 2144 on 29 October. It is likely that more than half were Rooks, and most of the remainder were Daurian Jackdaws.
1987: 3395 flew south, 12 October to 24 November; highest day total 950 on 21 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 670 bird-days.
[header=Wrens and Accentors]
Northern Wren Troglodytes troglodytes LT—not uncommon migrant and winter visitor, earliest date 10 October. H—two autumn records: 21st and 24 October, in separate years. COE—four individuals, 4-17 April.
1986: 13 bird-days were logged from 13 October to the end of the survey; it appears that nine birds were involved. One at EG on 13th and 16 October was not followed until 29th and 30th when one was at LH. Four individuals were recorded over 4-13 November, at Se, LH and EG, and it seems likely that records from 17-20 November at EG, WH and Se involved another three birds.
1987: 86 bird-days, 8 October to the end of the survey; 46 bird-days between 22 October and 10 November; highest day totals seven on 24 October and six on 6 November.
1988 (Ho): 15 bird-days, 17 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 77 bird-days, 8 October to 16 November; highest day total nine on 23 October.
1990: before 23 October, six bird-days, highest day total three on 21 October. From 23 October, 35 bird-days, throughout the period; highest day total five on 30 October and 4 November.

Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris erythropygia LT—apparently a common bird in the mountains; a number shot near Shanhaiguan in winter. H—no records. COE—one or two birds, 21 April to 3 May. Ch—breeds and winters in Hebei; status: fairly common.
1986: 104 bird-days were logged from 29 September to 17 November. The main period of occurrence was 3-19 October, when 59 bird-days were logged, and the maximum day count—nine birds—was made on 8th. A further 24 bird-days were logged during the rest of October and 20 during November. Other than one flying south over YH, all records were from LH, with 74 recorded flying south.
1987: 259 bird-days, 14 October to 14 November; 233 were recorded flying south, including 170 on 3 November.
1988 (Ho): at least 28 bird-days, 4 October to 16 November.
1989: 43 bird-days (four flew south), 11 October to 14 November; highest day total ten (at LH) on 17 October.
1990: one was seen on 14th and six on 15 October.

Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella LT—winter visitor, migration in November. H—winter visitor, earliest date 25 October. COE—recorded to 21 April; common at beginning of survey period.
1986: 866 bird-days, 8 October to the end of the period. Before 26 October, 62 bird-days were logged; from this date to 6 November, the period of main passage, 428 bird-days were logged, and the maximum day total was 111 on 1 November (106 were recorded from LH, flying south). A further 190 bird-days were logged from 7-13 November, and 122 during the last week of the study (when only nine were recorded flying south, and up to 22 present in a day). From the beginning of passage to around the middle of November, often noted passing south—515 were recorded from the LH watchpoint.
1987: 1899 bird-days (1502 flew south), 4 October to the end of the survey; highest day totals 135 on 30th, 205 on 31 October, 142 on 4th, 200 on 5th, 195 on 7th and 155 on 11 November; no actively migrating birds noted after 16 November, when highest day total 23 on 21st and 28th.
1988 (Ho): 173 bird-days, 6 October to 18 November.
1989: 823 bird-days (530 flew south), 9 October to 16 November; 323 flew south during 28 October to 1 November; highest day total of birds present 46 on 9 November.
1990: before 23 October, 21 bird-days. From 23 October, 247 bird-days (183 were recorded flying south), to the end of the survey; highest day totals of birds flying south 16 on 26 October, 21 on 1st, 63 on 2nd and 40 on 3 November, and of birds present 11 on 4th and 11 November.

Brown Accentor Prunella fulvescens No previous records for Hebei. Cheng maps the nearest area of occurrence as the northwestern strip of Nei Mongol Aut. Reg. (Inner Mongolia) during the summer.
1986: one was at the LH watchpoint on 21 October.
[header=Robins and Chats]
Red-tailed Robin Erithacus sibilans LT—one record, in spring. H—one spring and two autumn records. Ch—breeds Nei Mongol and Heilongjiang; migrates through Hebei. COE—23 bird-days, 5-22 May.
1986: 22 bird-days, 28 September to 9 October. Two were seen on the first day of occurrence, followed by 19 bird-days from 30 September to 6 October, when there was at least one record each day. The next and final record was of one bird. The highest day total was six on 30 September.
1987: 65 bird-days, 3-13 October; highest day totals 28 on 8th, 13 on 9th and 16 on 10 October.
1988 (Ho): one bird seen, 27 September.
1989: one on 5 October; six bird-days, 7-10 October.
1990: six bird-days, highest day total two on 4 October; all before 23 October.

Siberian Rubythroat Erithacus calliope LT—very abundant in autumn, passing from about 10th to the end of September. H—seen from 31 August to 5 October over three years; 17 bird-days (cf. 15 bird-days in spring). COE—56 bird-days, 18 April to 24 May.
1986: 48 bird-days, 21 September to 13 October; 17 bird-days were logged during the first week of passage, 19 in the second, and 12 in the last nine days; highest day count seven on 24 September. Seen at a wide variety of localities.
1987: 117 bird-days, 18 September to 2 November; 103 bird-days between 27 September and 11 October; highest day totals 25 on 7th and 24 on 8 October; only four records of single birds after 15 October.
1988 (Ho): ten bird-days, 12 September to 3 October.
1989: daily during 19-28 September, highest day total 21 on 25th, one on 5 October; five bird-days, 8-24 October.
1990: 26 bird-days, highest day totals four on 18 September, five on 3rd and four on 5 October; all before 23 October.
Our records suggest that this species is now rather uncommon at Beidaihe, not very abundant as reported by La Touche.
Bluethroat Erithacus svecicus LT—passes 10 September to mid-October. H--noticeably less common in autumn than in spring; just three birds in three years, 25 September to 10 October. COE—67 bird-days, 24 April to 27 May.
1986: 28 bird-days, 21 September to 13 October; the passage period coincided exactly with that of the Siberian Rubythroat. Eight bird-days were logged during the first week, 15 in the next and five during the last nine days of passage. The highest day total was seven on 28 September.
1987: 42 bird-days, 27 September to 26 October; 36 bird-days between 27 September and 11 October; highest day totals five on 28th and 29 September, eight on 8th and five on 9 October.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 12 September to 17 October.
1989: one to six recorded almost daily from 16 September to early October; 16 bird-days, 8-30 October; highest day total four on 13th and 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 44 bird-days, highest day totals 11 on 3rd and seven on 5 October. From 23 October, an immature male was at ER on 3rd and FP on 4 November.

Siberian Blue Robin Erithacus cyane LT—very abundant on migration, earliest and last autumn dates 23 August and 28 September. Wilder (1924)—on 10 September 1924 ‘the Siberian blue chat … was in the fields and on the grassy hillside among small pines in thousands, and the brown flycatcher (Muscicapa latirostris) in almost equal numbers. The next morning the former but not the latter had all disappeared, and other forms had come in the wings of a rainy northeaster.’ H—abundant in May; but rather few seen in autumn, when records mainly of birds trapped, 31 August to 5 October. Galsworthy (in litt.)—’v. numerous in the gullies’ at LH on 5 September 1983. COE—207 bird-days, 9-28 May.
1986: 133 bird-days, 27 August to 12 October. Mainly recorded during the first two weeks of passage; 95 bird-days were logged to 9 September; from 29th to the end of the passage period there were only two records of single birds. The highest day totals were 27 (at Re) on 28 August and 32 (including 20 at Re) on 6 September. Re and Se were the favoured localities.
1987: 65 bird-days, 2 September to 8 October; highest day total 20 on 2 September; 54 bird-days from 2-16 September.
1988 (Ho): 36 bird-days, 8-21 September; highest day totals 14 on 10th and 10 on 12 September.
1989: one to two recorded on five dates from 17-28 September, one on 12 October.
1990: 24 bird-days, highest day total four on 3rd, 10th and 12 September; all before 23 October.
Recent records suggest the species has declined since early this century, in agreement with records in spring.

Red-flanked Bluetail (Orange-flanked Bush-Robin) Tarsiger cyanurus LT—very common migrant, latter half of September to 9 November. H—common migrant, 11 September to 5 November. COE—298 bird-days, 17 March to 1 May.
1986: 407 bird-days, 14 September to 19 November. Only one was seen to 22 September, but significant passage commenced around 24th. The main passage period was from 6-20 October when 278 bird-days were logged. Significant passage lasted until the end of the month; only 13 bird-days were logged during November. The highest day totals were 30 on 14th and 36 on 15 October.
1987: 465 bird-days, 23 September to 13 November; 431 bird-days 2-28 October; highest day totals 45 on 7th and 46 on 26 October.
1988 (Ho): 23 bird-days, 2 October to 3 November.
1989: one on 21st and two on 28 September, more regular from 5 October; 944 bird-days, 7 October to 9 November; highest day total until 23 October was 68 birds on 13 October; 350 bird-days over 23-25 October (210 on 24th); only six birds on 26 October; further influx resulted in 347 bird-days over 27-30 October (116 on 29th); only 22 bird-days after 30 October. The influxes coincided with low air pressure, birds tended to move out with the arrival of northerly airstreams (which typically prompt migration in autumn).
1990: before 23 October, 54 bird-days, highest day total 11 on 17th and 22 October. From 23 October, 47 bird-days, 23 October to 8 November; highest day totals 23 on 23rd and 11 on 24 October; in November, only two records of single birds.

Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus LT—breeds in the mountains. ‘It pairs again during the first ten days of October.’ (this seems a curious statement; should perhaps read ‘It appears again [at Qinhuangdao] during the last ten days of October.’). H—seen between 27 September and 22 December. COE—95 bird-days, 15 March to 11 May.
1986: 64 bird-days, 29 September to the end of the survey. Twelve bird-days were logged to 6 October and the main passage began on 8th, with 31 bird-days from this date to 16 October and the peak day count—six birds—on 9th. A further ten bird-days were logged during the rest of October and 12 in November. Most of the records were from the coast.
1987: 289 bird-days, other than one on 7 September, recorded from 2 October to 28 November; 256 bird-days during 2-29 October; highest day totals 30 on 7th and 39 on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): ten bird-days, 1-20 October.
1989: 102 bird-days, 7 October to 10 November; 57 bird-days over 7-14 October (highest day total ten birds on 9 October); seven bird-days in November.
1990: before 23 October, 20 bird-days, highest day totals six on 10th and four on 14 October. From 23 October, seven bird-days: six records of single birds from 3rd to 8th, and one on 16 November.

Güldenstädt’s Redstart (White-winged Redstart) Phoenicurus erythrogaster LT—no records. WH—two to three in bird market and one seen in Beijing. H—a male on 11 November. COE—no records. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: a male was at the LH watchpoint on 29 October.
1987: a male, after a heavy snowfall on 28 November.
1988 (Ho): a male was at LH on 28 October.
1989: a male was at Legation Point on 16 November.
1990: a male was at ER on 30 October.

Stonechat Saxicola torquata stejnegeri LT—extremely common migrant, passing mid-August to the end of September or beginning of October. H—common, 28 August to 28 October. COE—843 bird-days, 8 April to 22 May.
1986: 195 bird-days, 23 August to 12 October. Significant passage occurred from 10 September to 7 October, with the main passage period being 24-30 September when 63 bird-days were logged and there was the maximum day count—41 birds on 24th. Mostly seen at the open areas of Re/GS/SF.
1987: 523 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 26 October; highest day totals 40 on 15 September and 35 on 8 October.
1988 (Ho): 243 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 8 October; the highest day totals were 51 on 17th and 46 on 18 September.
1989: almost daily from 16 September to early October, highest day totals 12 on 20th and 14 on 21 September; 23 bird-days, 8-20 October, when highest day total seven on 14 October.
1990: 582 bird-days, highest day totals 109 on 10th, 57 on 11th and 85 on 22 September; all before 23 October.
[header=Rockthrushes and Thrushes]
White-throated Rockthrush Monticola gularis LT—no autumn records. WH—rare migrant at Beijing; first appearances in bird markets in three years 4-20 October. Sh—passing migrant and summer visitor. H—after return to Denmark, told of one caught 24 May 1946. COE—22 bird-days, 12-28 May. Ch—breeds at the Eastern Tombs, also noted as migrant and winter visitor to the province.
1986: a female or immature was at LH on 25 September.
1987: singles on 22nd and 30 September, seven on 8th and four on 9 October.
1988 (Ho): a juvenile male, 24 September.
1990: singles were recorded on 22nd and 25 September.
It seems this species is largely a spring migrant at Beidaihe, passing in May. Cheng’s assertion that it occurs in Hebei in winter is surely questionable.

Blue Rockthrush Monticola solitarius philippensis LT—not noticed in autumn; breeds in the mountains. H—two autumn records; by contrast, seen on 30 dates in spring. COE—50 bird-days, 30 April to 23 May.
1986: 56 bird-days, 20 August to 27 September. All records were from LH and birds were seen on most days during the period, usually one or two in a day. The highest day total was seven on 6th and 7 September; six were seen on 22 August.
1987: 61 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 7 October; highest day totals ten on 29th and eight on 30 August; only singles after 12 September.
1988 (Ho): at least three birds seen, 9-13 September.
1990: before 23 October, 23 bird-days, highest day totals three on 24th, 29th and five on 31 August. The only record after 23 October was a female or immature at ER on 30 October; late for this species.

Siberian Thrush Zoothera sibirica LT—passes in spring; no autumn records. WH—only records were in the food market, 23 May and 1 November 1919. H—three records in May. COE—14/15 individuals, 15-23 May.
1986: three were seen at Temple Gully, LH, on 11 September—a male, a female and an immature male.
1988 (Ho): a male seen from the LH watchpoint, 11 September; a thrush which was probably a female of this species was seen from the watchpoint on 24 September.
1990: two males on 1 September.

White’s Thrush (Scaly Thrush) Zoothera dauma LT—six autumn records in six years, 24 August to October. H—four or five birds in three autumns. COE—five seen, 7-15 May.
1986: 42 bird-days, 2 September to 9 October. On most days from 11 September one or two birds were seen, or occasionally three or four. The highest day total was five on 28 September; there was a slight cluster of records at this time. Seen at a variety of localities.
1987: 59 bird-days, 19 September to 21 October; 13 were recorded flying south on 12 October.
1988 (Ho): 15 bird-days, 9 September to 1 October.
1989: 12 bird-days, one to four recorded on six dates from 15-27 September; seven bird-days, 10-29 October; other than a late bird over 28-29 October—and a long-dead one on 9 November—five bird-days (two birds?), 10-14 October.
1990: eight bird-days, highest day total two on 23 September; all before 23 October.

Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum LT—no autumn records. H—one spring record. COE—singles on 1st and 14 May. Ch—migrant through Hebei.
1986: four were at YH on 30 September, one was at the same locality on 3rd and one at GS on 8 October.
1987: 56 bird-days, 27 September to 11 October; highest day totals of birds present were 30 on 7th and eight on 9 October; 15 flew south on 3 October.
1988 (Ho): one seen, 2 October.
1989: recorded on three days in October: one at Legation Gully on 17th, one at LH on 18th, and singles at LH, LP and Re on 27th.
1990: eight bird-days, highest day total six on 8 October; all before 23 October.

Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—migrant in Hebei (‘lumps’ together with Eye-browed Thrush).
1989: one was at Re on 14 October.

Eye-browed Thrush Turdus obscurus LT—sparingly, 14-24 September. H—less common than spring, 10-16 September. COE—166 bird-days, 10-31 May.
1986: 65 bird-days, 2 September to 6 October. As with the White’s Thrush, the first record was not followed until 11 September (the same day as the only record of the Siberian Thrush). Thereafter, one to four birds were seen on most days, with a slight concentration of records from 22-27 September, when 27 bird-days were logged. The maximum count was 12 birds at LH (the favoured locality) on 27 September.
1987: 203 bird-days (79 were recorded flying south), 5 September to 12 October; highest day totals of birds present were 11 on 18th, 14 on 20th and 23 on 22 September, and of birds flying south, 19 on 21st and 17 on 22 September.
1988 (Ho): 60 bird-days, 9 September to 3 October; 30 bird-days 17-20 September.
1989: 18 bird-days, one to nine recorded on six dates, 15-28 September; singles were at TH on 9th and LH on 23 October.
1990: 51 bird-days, all before 23 October.

Red-throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis ruficollis LT—no autumn records. WH—fairly common in company with Dusky and Naumann’s Thrushes all winter; the ‘few records in the field and many in the market’ were all between 14 November and 21 March. Rare in northeast Hebei (Wilder and Hubbard 1938). H—no records. COE—four birds, 1 April to 1 May.
1986: a male was at YH on 7 October.
1987: three on 6th, two on 7th and 8th and one (flying south) on 18 October.
1988 (Ho): one seen, 3 October.
1989: four records—two females or first-winters (this sub-species or Black-throated Thrush T.f. atrogularis) at LH on 6th, a male at Re on 28 October and a female at the same locality the following day and one, probably female, at Study Gully on 16 November.
1990: two were seen on 22 September.

Dusky Thrush and Naumann’s Thrush (Rufous-tailed Thrush) Turdus naumanni eunomus and T. n. naumanni LT—the Naumann’s Thrush appears rather late in October and through November; winters in sheltered places on the plain. The Dusky Thrush passes in October. WH—on the plains the Naumann’s Thrush is a very common migrant and rare winter visitor; much more common in the hills in the winter. First records in autumn between 12 September and 20 October; pass on south or to the hills by 20 November. Dusky Thrush common, but much less so than Rufous-tailed; most common as a migrant. H—18 dates in three years from 1 October to 29 December; the Dusky Thrush returns earlier in autumn. COE—108 bird-days logged for the Dusky Thrush, main passage 9-19 April, last date 20 May; 228 bird-days logged for the Naumann’s Thrush, main passage 25 March to 5 April, last date 1 May.
1986: 1042 bird-days were logged for both subspecies (i.e. including birds racially identified), 24 September to the end of the survey. The main passage period was 8-14 October, when 315 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—136 birds—was made on 6th. Numbers were otherwise fairly evenly distributed throughout the period. In agreement with La Touche and Hemmingsen, we found that the Dusky Thrush passed earlier than the Naumann’s. with half of the 66 bird-days for this subspecies logged during the first two weeks of October. The main passage of the Rufous-tailed Thrush was about two weeks later, and 136 bird-days were logged in total. Four hundred and ten birds were logged from LH, flying south. Of these, eight were identified as Dusky and 35 as Naumann’s.
1987: 3289 bird-days (2784 flew south), 26 September to the end of the survey; 1950 were recorded flying south during the morning of 11 November; other notable totals of birds flying south were 275 on 13th and 230 on 30 October.
1988 (Ho): 337 bird-days, 25 September to the end of the survey.
1989: 1024 bird-days (874 flew south) were logged for Dusky Thrush/Naumann’s Thrush (i.e. of undetermined subspecies), 8 October to 10 November; highest day totals 440 (420 flew south) on 27 October and 283 (268 flew south) on 5 November. For the Dusky Thrush: one on 6 October; 288 bird-days, 8 October to 5 November; highest day total 148 (135 at Re) on 27 October. For Naumann’s Thrush: 49 bird-days, 19 October to 16 November; highest day total 17 on 27 October.
1990: for Dusky Thrush/Naumann’s Thrush: Before 23 October, 127 bird-days, highest day total 31 on 8th and 15 October. From 23 October, 160 bird-days (37 were recorded flying south); highest day total 63 (12 flying south) on 4 November. For Dusky Thrush: five on 23rd, six on 24 October, and one on 4 November. For Naumann’s Thrush: 200 bird-days (120 were recorded flying south), from 23 October to the end of the survey; highest day totals of birds flying south 34 on 26 October, 20 on 2nd and 65 on 3 November, and of birds present 17 on 31 October, 26 on 4th and 14 on 10 November.

•(NT)Chinese Song Thrush Turdus mupinensis LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—resident at Eastern Tombs, in Hebei. Breeds sparingly near Beijing (Cai 1987).
1989: one was at LP during 13-15 October.
1990: one was seen on 14 September.
Judging by recent spring observations, this thrush breeds at Old Peak, north of Qinhuangdao (MDW pers obs.).

Unidentified thrushes Turdus spp.
1986: 402 unidentified thrushes were recorded from 22 August to 11 November; 349 were recorded from LH, flying south, and the highest day count was 69 on 5 October. Most occurred late in the period, and it seems likely the records mainly involve Dusky or Naumann’s Thrushes.
1987: 108 bird-days, 27 September to 18 October.
1988 (Ho): 20 bird-days.
1990: 16 bird-days, before 23 October.
[header=Laughinthrushes, Parrotbill and Bush-Warblers]
Père David’s Laughingthrush (Plain Laughingthrush) Garrulax davidi LT—common resident in the mountains. H, COE—no records.
1986: two were at GS on 12 October and one was at Se on 19th and 20 November.
1987: one seen, 5 October.

Hwamei Garrulax canorus LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—resident in central and southern China.
1987: one on 27 October, and probably a second bird seen on 14th, 22nd, 23rd and 25 November. Almost certainly escapees from captivity.

Bearded Reedling (Bearded Tit) Panurus biarmicus LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—Hebei in winter.
1987: two on 15 October.

Vinous-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis webbianus LT—common in mountains. WH—’Common resident in mountains coming to plains at the foot of hills in winter.’ H, COE—no records.
1986: ten were at Re on 19th and 30 October, and 11 were seen at the same locality on 13 November. The records may all refer to the same flock, which could be surprisingly elusive.
1987: 414 bird-days, 24 September to 24 November; total perhaps results from two flocks being seen several times; highest day total 28 on 2 October.
1988 (Ho): a flock of 25 birds was seen at Re on eight dates from 25 September to 18 November.
1989: 574 bird-days, 8 October to 10 November; up to 20 at Re before 24 October, when 40 were present; 16 at Re, 25 at LP and one at Study Gully the following day; on 28 October, 40 at LP and 35 at Re; the highest day total was 105 (35 at Re, 20 at LP, 30 at LH and 25 at EG) on 1 November, after which day totals did not exceed 35.
1990: before 23 October, four bird-days. From 23 October, 15 were at Re on 31 October and seven at ER on 4 November.
The records suggest a local population increase, maybe as a result of lower mortality during recent mild winters.

Stub-tailed Bush-Warbler Cettia squameiceps LT, H—no records. WH—taken once (in Hebei) by Hubbard, also secured by Weigold. COE—singles over 15-16 April and on 5 May.
1986: no records.
1987: 62 bird-days, 27 September to 6 November; 54 bird-days over 8-14 October, highest day totals 31 on 8th, ten on 9th and four on 10th and 13 October; the last records were of an injured bird seen on three dates from 28 October to 6 November.
1988, 1989, 1990: no records.

Manchurian Bush-Warbler Cettia canturians LT, H—no records. COE—one, 21 April. Ch—breeds in northeastern provinces and winters in south China, but not given as occurring in Hebei.
1986: singles were recorded at Re on 24th, YH on 25th and Re on 27 October and at GS over 7-8 October. Three or four birds were involved.
1987: six bird-days, 27 September to 10 October.
1990: three were seen on 18 September.

Spotted Bush-Warbler Bradypterus thoracicus davidi LT—one caught by house cat on 4 September 1912, singles shot on 31 May and 1 June 1917, wing (remains of bird eaten by a cat) found on 1 October 1914. H—two spring records only. COE—one on 24th and three on 27 May. Ch—breeds in Hebei (hilly country).
1986: one was at YH on 1 October.
1987: 11 bird-days, 21 September to 4 October; highest day total five on 27 September.
1988 (Ho): one seen, 10 September.
1989: singles on 16th and 19th, four on 22nd, two on 24th and one on 27 September, and one on 8 October.
1990: singles on 15th and 22 September.

Chinese Bush-Warbler Bradypterus tacsanowskius LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—breeds in northwest Hebei.
1990: singles on 24th and 29 August.

Spotted Bush-Warbler/Chinese Bush-Warbler Bradypterus thoracicus/B. tacsanowskius
1990: one seen on 10 September.
[header=Marsh-, Grasshopper, and Reed Warblers]
•(VU)Japanese Marsh-Warbler (Marshland Warbler) Locustella pryeri LT—one shot on 19 October 1911; on 18 October 1914, at marshes, ‘swarming on the grassy banks and among the sedgy grass of the locality’. H, COE—no records.
1989: four individuals were seen—singles at Re from 12th to 14th, at LP on 23rd and at Re on 24 October.
1990: one was at Fishhook Point on 31 October.

Pallas’s Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella certhiola LT—very abundant, last week of August to mid-September. H—recorded in one autumn, from 25 August to 22 September. COE—42 bird-days, 5 May to 1 June.
1986: 28 bird-days, 28 August to 14 October. Only seven birds were recorded to 17 September, when the main passage period began; during the ensuing two weeks, 18 bird-days were logged. Singles on 1st, 3rd and 14 October were the last records. The highest day total was five on 30 September.
1987: 52 bird-days, 5 September to 2 November; highest day total 12 on 27 September; only one--on 2 November—after 8 October.
1988 (Ho): 19 bird-days, 17 September to 5 October.
1989: one on 26 September; 14 bird-days, 8-14 October; highest day total five birds on 13 October.
1990: 58 bird-days, highest day totals six on 19th, eight on 22nd and nine on 27 September; all before 23 October.

Lanceolated Warbler Locustella lanceolata LT—very abundant, last ten days of August until October (last records 8th and 10 October). H—one doubtful autumn record. COE—292 bird-days, 9 May to 1 June.
1986: 238 bird-days, 29 August to 19 October. Thirteen bird-days were logged to 17 September, when significant passage began. The main passage was during the two weeks beginning 24 September, when 179 bird-days were logged. After 9 October, four were seen on 13th and one on 19th. The highest day totals were 13 on 24th, 23 on 28th, 33 on 29th, 16 on 30 September, 11 on 4th and 12 on 5 October.
1987: 251 bird-days, 22 August to 28 October; highest day totals 15 on 20th, 35 on 27th, 26 on 28th and 30 on 29 September.
1988 (Ho): 38 bird-days, 11 September to 17 October.
1989: one to two recorded on six dates from 18th to 25th and nine on 26 September; eight bird-days, 8-24 October, when highest day total two on 14 October; only one bird after 16 October.
1990: 113 bird-days, highest day totals 25 on 10 September and 13 on 3 October; all before 23 October.

Pallas’s Grasshopper-Warbler/Lanceolated Warbler Locustella certhiola/L. lanceolata
1987: 62 bird-days, 15 September to 14 October.
1988 (Ho): two bird-days.
1990: 13 bird-days, before 23 October.

Middendorf’s Warbler Locustella ochotensis LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—migrant in east and southeast China; status: rare.
1989: one at Re on 5 October (Ben King in litt. to MDW).

Gray’s Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella fasciolata LT, COE—no records. H—specimens 10th and 20 June 1944, preceded in north China only by one record by Hubbard, at Beidaihe 12 June (year?).
1987: one at Re, 27 September.
1988 (Ho): one ‘glimpsed’ at Re, 16 September.

Oriental Reed-Warbler (Eastern Great Reed-Warbler) Acrocephalus (arundinaceus) orientalis LT—not a common migrant, August and September. H—no autumn records. COE—83 bird-days, 14 May to 1 June. Ch—breeds in Hebei.
1986: 49 bird-days, 20 August to 6 October. There were 26 bird-days logged in August, eight in the first and ten in the last ten days of September; the last record was of one bird on 6 October. The highest day totals were ten on 27th and five on 29 August. Most were seen at Re.
1987: 141 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 25 October; highest day totals 14 on 19th, 21 on 21st, 23 on 22 August and 14 on 5 September; only singles on six dates after 13 September.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 16-18 September.
1989: three on 20th and 21st, singles on 22nd and 26 September, singles at EG on 9th and 12 October, and at Re on 14th, 15th and 20 October.
1990: 55 bird-days; all before 23 October.

Black-browed Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps LT—the commonest Acrocephalus warbler by far, passing 7 August to 2 October. H—common migrant, seen in autumn from 11 August to 16 October. COE—very common, recorded from 29 April to the end of the survey period.
1986: 257 bird-days, 20 August to 30 October. Twelve bird-days were logged to 10 September, when significant passage began. The main passage period was from 21 September to 1 October, when 135 bird-days were logged and the highest count—41 birds—was made on 21 September. Only four birds were noted in the second half of October. Seen at a variety of locations but Re was the favoured locality.
1987: 153 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 3 November; highest day totals 35 on 13 September and 11 on 7 October.
1988 (Ho): 84 bird-days, 8 September to 17 October; highest day total 12 on 21 September.
1989: from 16 September to early October, highest day total 45 on 26 September; 97 bird-days, 8-29 October, when highest day total 35 on 13 October.
1990: before 23 October, 386 bird-days, highest day totals 40 on 25th, 62 on 27th and 76 on 29 September. From 23 October, singles were at ER on 23rd and FP on 30th, and two were at FP on 31 October.

Manchurian Paddyfield Warbler/Blunt-winged Warbler Acrocephalus (agricola) tangorum/A. concinens LT—birds La Touche described as the North China Reed Warbler A. tangorum were very common in the millet fields around Qinhuangdao from about 18 August to the latter half of September; only met with on a few occasions in spring. ‘It is probable that this Reed-Warbler breeds in the marshes of the district.’ Blunt-winged Warbler evidently a rare migrant, as in seven years’ collecting only one specimen, 10 June 1914. WH—Hebei records for Blunt-winged Warbler in one year, 15-24 May; Hemmingsen cites Wilder and Hubbard as having collected specimens of the Manchurian Paddyfield Warbler at Beidaihe on 30 August and 2 September, and that (like La Touche) they found it in millet fields. H—no records. COE—two Manchurian Paddyfield Warblers or Blunt-winged Warblers.
1986: a bird showing characters of the Blunt-winged Warbler was seen on 2 October and singles showing characters of the Manchurian Paddyfield Warbler were seen on 4th and 15 October.
1987: a Blunt-winged or Manchurian Paddyfield Warbler was seen on 27 September, and a bird thought to be a Manchurian Paddyfield Warbler on 29 September.
1989: three Manchurian Paddyfield Warblers—one at TH on 12th and 13 October, and two at Re on 14 October.
1990: no records.

Thick-billed Warbler Acrocephalus aedon LT—next to the Black-browed Reed-Warbler, the most conspicuous of the Reed-Warblers seen at Qinhuangdao during migration; mainly passes 17 August to the end of September, seen as late as 16 October. H—31 August to 25 September, not common. COE—138 bird-days, 16-31 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1986: 57 bird-days, 20 August to 12 October. The main passage was from 30 August to 12 September, when 37 bird-days were logged. Six and 13 bird-days were logged before, and after, this period, respectively. Birds were seen on half the days during the passage period, and the highest day count was five on 5th and 6 September.
1987: 53 bird-days, 21 August to 15 October; highest day total five on 22 August and 15 September.
1988 (Ho): ten bird-days, 12 September to 2 October.
1989: singles on 20th, 22nd and 28 September.
1990: 27 bird-days, highest day total six on 29 August; all before 23 October.
[header=Phylloscopus warblers, Cisticolas, Kinglets, hill warbler]
Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus LT—very common migrant, beginning of September to the end of October. H—seen from late August to the end of October, most commonly in October. COE—297 bird-days, 9 April to 31 May.
1986: 504 bird-days, 29 August to 4 November. Passage was mainly concentrated during the three-week period 24 September to 14 October, when 389 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—44 birds—was made on 30 September. Only one was seen after 21 October.
1987: 766 bird-days, 2 September to 9 November; 475 bird-days between 27 September and 11 October; highest day totals 84 on 27th, 67 on 29 September and 85 on 7 October.
1988 (Ho): 182 bird-days, 11 September to 27 October; highest day totals 34 on 26 September and 24 on 8 October.
1989: from 16 September to early October, highest day total 60 on 22 September; 201 bird-days, 8 October to 5 November; highest day totals 45 on 13th and 21 on 24 October.
1990: before 23 October, 169 bird-days. From 23 October, 33 bird-days, 23 October to 8 November; highest day total 13 on 23 October; only six bird-days in November, when maximum three on 4th.

Yellow-streaked Warbler Phylloscopus armandii LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—breeding range extends from central China to Liaoning and includes western Hebei.
1990: one on 1 October.

Radde’s Warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi LT—common migrant, about 19 September to mid-October. H—seen from 25 September to 19 October. COE—216 bird-days, 7-28 May.
1986: 351 bird-days, 21 September to 14 October. The patterns of occurrence of this species and the closely-related Dusky Warbler were much as in spring 1985, i.e. the peak passage periods roughly coincided but the occurrence of the Radde’s Warbler was more concentrated. During the three-and-a-half weeks of passage, the following bird-day totals were logged: 24 during 21st-23rd and 224 during 24-30 September, 79 during 1st-7th and 25 during 8-14 October. A major arrival of the species was evident on 28 September, when 149 birds—the highest day total—were seen.
1987: 229 bird-days, 3 September to 26 October; 164 bird-days between 27 September and 11 October; highest day totals 25 on 27 September, 35 on 7th and 26 on 8 October.
1988 (Ho): 41 bird-days, 22 September to late October; highest day total 22 on 26 September; only 12 bird-days in October.
1989: from 18 September to early October, highest day total 35 on 25 September; 69 bird-days, 7-23 October, when highest day totals 12 on 9th and 18 on 13 October.
1990: before 23 October, 63 bird-days, highest day totals 13 on 18th and 19 on 25 September. From 23 October, the only record was one at LH on 24 October.
Dusky Warbler/Radde’s Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus/P. schwarzi
1986: 77 bird-days, 18 September to 12 October; the highest day count was 16 on 28 September. Most were recorded on the basis of a tac call heard; this call is typical of the Dusky Warbler; the Radde’s Warbler may give a similar call, though not usually sounding exactly similar to Dusky Warbler—’higher-pitched … and at least sometimes more ringing than the clicking dek dek of Ph. fuscatus’ and ‘sometimes repeated at a quick rate … becoming … even chuckle-like.’ (Hemmingsen’s description, which fits our experience of the two species).
1987: 26 bird-days, 30 August to 24 October; some may have been Yellow-streaked Warblers.

Yellow-browed Warbler (Inornate Warbler) Phylloscopus inornatus inornatus LT—common, 18 August to 30 October. H—common, 28 August to 5 November. COE—2453 bird-days, 11 April to 25 May.
1986: 1528 bird-days, 20 August to 10 November. Significant passage began at the end of August and lasted until the third week of October. The main passage was from about 21 September to 14 October, when 1060 bird-days were recorded, and there were high day totals of 114 on 28 September, 81 on 3rd, 87 on 7th and 101 on 9 October. Numbers dropped sharply after this period. Birds were seen throughout the survey area.
1987: 1476 bird-days, 22 August to 9 November; 859 bird-days from 27 September to 16 October; highest day totals 74 on 29 September, 65 on 2nd and 120 on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): 421 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 3 November; highest day total 56 on 17 October.
1989: from 14 September to early October, highest day totals 100 on 18th and 211 on 22 September; 310 bird-days, 7 October to 8 November; 29 on 9 October; influx produced 101 bird-days over 11-14 October (28 on 13th); further influx resulted in 80 bird-days over 27-30 October (29 on 27th), after which only six bird-days were logged.
1990: before 23 October, 866 bird-days, highest day totals at least 125 on 10th, 70 on 21 September and 50 on 13 October. From 23 October, 86 bird-days, 23 October to 11 November; highest day totals 14 on 29th and 16 on 31 October; 12 bird-days in November, when the only record after 5th was one on 11th.

Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler (Lemon-rumped Warbler) Phylloscopus proregulus LT—common, about 22 September to the end of October. WH—autumn dates from 7 September to 25 October, with one early record on 25 August, at Beidaihe. H—common, 9 September to the end of October. COE—542 bird-days, 1 April to 28 May.
1986: 883 bird-days, 22 September to 19 November; unlike the Yellow-browed Warbler, we found this species more common in autumn than in spring. Passage was quite concentrated, with 773 bird-days logged from 3-21 October. Only seven bird-days were logged in November. The highest day totals were 224 on 12th, 115 on 13th and 64 on 14 October.
1987: 1460 bird-days, 26 September to 19 November; highest day totals 195 on 13th, 395 on 15th and 160 on 16 October.
1988 (Ho): 199 bird-days, 27 September to 8 November.
1989: recorded from 25 September; 1573 bird-days, 7 October to 16 November; 1383 bird-days from 8-20 October (highest day totals 240 on 12th, 395 on 13th and 152 on 19th); 32 bird-days 27-30 October, when it was outnumbered by Yellow-browed Warblers, the bulk of which pass earlier than the Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler; 28 bird-days in November, with the only records after 8th two at LH on 14th and two at Study Gully on 16th.
1990: before 23 October, 225 bird-days, highest day totals 20 on 2nd and 45 on 22 October. From 23 October, 202 bird-days, 23 October to 15 November; highest day totals 66 on 23rd and 51 on 24 October; 21 bird-days in November, when the only record after 9th was one on 15th.

Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis LT—common, 10 August to mid-September. H—some uncertainty over identification, birds believed to be this species seen and/or heard from 15 August to at least 5 September, maybe 5 October. COE—less than 145 bird-days (total includes some misidentified Pale-legged Leaf-Warblers), 28 April to 31 May.
1986: 81 bird-days, 20 August to 13 October. A steady trickle of birds passed to 26 September: seven bird-days were logged from 20-26 August, 23 from 27 August to 7 September, 14 from 8th-13th and 34 from 16-26 September; nine bird-days were logged after 26th. The highest day totals were eight on 20th and seven on 26 September. Recorded throughout the area.
1987: 138 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 10 October; highest day totals 15 on 11th and 11 on 13 September.
1988 (Ho): 27 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 18 September.
1989: 33 bird-days, highest day total six, 15-29 September; 12 bird-days, 7-31 October; a late bird was at Re from around 16 October (seen on five days).
1990: 130 bird-days, highest day totals 15 on 24th, 11 on 26th and 28 on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Two-barred Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides plumbeitarsus LT—abundant, ‘generally travels with P. borealis [Arctic Warbler], but remains much later in autumn.’; observed from the latter half of August to about 22 September—must remain later as one shot 4 October. ‘At the beginning of September 1913 and 1914 this bird swarmed for a few days on some jujube-bushes behind our house.’ H—none identified. COE—less than 69 bird-days (total includes some misidentified Arctic Warblers), 5 May to 1 June.
1986: 35 bird-days were logged from 24 August to 10 October. The main passage followed that of the Arctic Warbler, with 20 bird-days logged from 26 September to 4 October. The highest day total was five on 4 October. This species is very similar to the Arctic Warbler, and records of both may be somewhat unreliable.
1987: 30 bird-days, 5 September to 10 October; highest day total four on 8th and 9 October.
1988 (Ho): five bird-days, 11 September to 3 October.
1989: one on 18th, two on 19th and one on 20 September, one at LH on 9 October.
1990: four bird-days, highest day total two on 16 September; all before 23 October.
We found the Two-barred Greenish Warbler rather uncommon—not abundant as reported by La Touche.

Arctic Warbler/Two-barred Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus borealis/P. trochiloides plumbeitarsus
1986: 57 bird-days were logged from 20 August to 3 October.
1987: 20 bird-days, 30 August to 7 October.

Pale-legged Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes LT—not common, specimens 7th and 29 September, call a loud tsic resembling that of Arctic and Two-barred Warblers. WH—no records, though species recorded in Hebei by other authors. H—27 dates in two autumns, 26 August to 7 October; ‘The call is easily imitated by a short human lip whistle … and resembling that of Phoenicurus a. auroreus [Daurian Redstart] in pitch, tone and frequency, abt. 7-8 call per 5 seconds. Yet it was emitted at less regular intervals and often only 1 or 2-3 calls at a time, and perhaps it was also less "creaking".’ Four specimens collected; comparison of measurements and soft parts colours with those published for Phylloscopus warblers known to occur in Hebei showed that they fit this species only; but one of two specimens taken to Stockholm did not fully correspond with the other specimens available for comparison, e.g. underside much less white and wing formula differs: this was attributed to bird being in (then unknown) juvenile plumage. COE—perhaps five or more birds, misidentified as Arctic Warblers. Ch—migrates through coastal China.
1986: 13 bird-days, 25 August to 13 September. The birds were initially identified as Arctic Warblers, partly on the basis of experience in spring 1985, when the same mistake was made. They were typically rather skulking, dull green above, grey cast on the crown, with a striking pale supercilium and perhaps a faint wing bar on the greater coverts, and exhibited a characteristic downward tail flick, often accompanied by the ‘squeaky-gate’ call, which is presumably the same as Hemmingsen described (but bears little resemblance to Arctic and Two-barred Greenish Warbler calls, in contrast to La Touche’s assertion).
1987: 38 bird-days, 3 September to 8 October; highest day total 20 on 5 September.
1988 (Ho): 40 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 20 September; highest day totals 11 on 10th and nine on 18 September.
1990: five bird-days, highest day total two on 12 September; all before 23 October.

Eastern Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus coronatus LT—three birds, 16 May 1913. H—only one identified, 25 May 1944. COE—44 bird-days, 25 April to 29 May. Ch—breeds in, and migrates through, Hebei.
1986: 22 bird-days, 24 August to 30 September. Only one was seen after 9 September; records were mainly from 24-27 August, when 13 bird-days were logged, and six birds—the highest day count—were seen on 24th.
1987: 11 bird-days, 24 August to 24 September; eight bird-days from 24-29 August.
1990: eight bird-days, all in August, highest day total five on 29th.

Unidentified leaf warblers Phylloscopus sp.
1987: 86 bird-days, beginning of the survey to mid-October.
1988 (Ho): seven bird-days.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus LT—’apparently a very common migrant on the China coast … in October and November.’ H—eight or nine birds in two winters. COE—80 bird-days, from the beginning of the survey to 27 April. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: 91 bird-days were logged from 14 October to 20 November. Eighteen bird-days were logged to 27 October, and 37 bird-days from 28 October to 5 November, marking a shallow peak of passage. The highest day count was six birds, recorded on five dates.
1987: 68 bird-days, 7 October to 25 November; highest day total nine on 3rd and 7 November.
1988 (Ho): 33 bird-days, 12 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 55 bird-days, 23 October to 14 November; highest day total 12 on 10 November.
1990: before 23 October, 18 bird-days. From 23 October, 105 bird-days, throughout the period; highest day total nine on 4 November.

Zitting Cisticola (Fan-tailed Warbler) Cisticola juncidis LT, H—no records. Sh—one record in Hebei, October. COE—up to three singing males at Re plus three birds elsewhere, assumed to be on passage. Ch—vagrant to Beijing and Tianjin municipalities (though not listed for Beijing in Cai 1987).
1986: 39 bird-days, 20 August to 7 October. During August, 15 bird-days were logged and the maximum day count—five birds—was made on 22nd. A further six bird-days were logged to 8 September; there was then a gap in records until 17th, and the rest of September produced seven bird-days. During the last week of occurrence, 11 bird-days were logged and there was another day total of five birds, on 6 October. Recorded at YH, Re and GS.
1987: 29 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 22 October, though only two records of single birds after 3 September; highest day total six on 28 August.
1989: five bird-days, 8-20 October.
1990: 14 bird-days, highest day total three on 24 August and 12 October; all before 23 October.

Chinese Hill-Warbler Rhopophilus pekinensis (Also considered by some authorities to belong to the babblers.) LT—very common in the mountains. H—no records. COE—five birds, 7 April to 19 May.
1986: there were six records of single birds: in September, at YH on 25th and TH on 30th, and in October at YH on 1st, Se on 2nd, EG on 13th and 14th, and Re on 19th.
1987: 70 bird-days, 24 August to 2 November; two on 24 August and 5 September; more frequent from 13 September; highest day total six on 6 October. Mainly recorded at TH/YH.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 8-18 October.
1989: 30 bird-days, 12 October to 15 November; five bird-days to 28 October; highest day total four on 30 October.
1990: one on 26 September.
It appears that records of this species earlier this century were only from the mountains, and the numbers of birds recorded at Beidaihe in recent years suggest a population increase, perhaps because of mild winters.
[header=Flycatchers]
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia LT—not recorded in autumn. H—not uncommon in spring, but no autumn records at Beidaihe; one in autumn at Beijing. COE—40 bird-days, 11-31 May. Ch—breeds in Hebei.
1986: 14 bird-days, 20 August to 12 September; 11 bird-days during August and three in September; highest day total three on 24th and 27 August. It appears that at least ten individuals were involved. Most records were from LH, and birds were seen on nine dates.
1987: three on 26th and one on 29 August.

Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki LT, H—no autumn records; scarce in spring. COE—19 bird-days, 7-22 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1987: one on 3rd, two or three on 8th and one on 13 October.

Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula (parva) albicilla LT—commonest of the flycatchers, 29 August to mid-October, late bird 29 October. H—very common, 25 August to 14 October. COE—190 bird-days, 20 April to 1 June; the commonest flycatcher.
1986: 224 bird-days, 26 August to 17 November. The main passage was from 15 September to 7 October, when 142 bird-days were logged and the highest count—21 birds—was made on 28 September. The passage effectively finished with a record of two birds on 16 October, though there was a very late juvenile at Eagle (Rock) Gully on 17 November. Recorded at a number of localities.
1987: 223 bird-days, 5 September to 7 November; highest day totals 22 on 15th, 15 on 29 September and 26 on 8 October; only six bird-days over 17-31 October, after which the only record was one on 7 November.
1988 (Ho): 40 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 16 November; none were seen between 17 October and the last record, one on 16 November.
1989: recorded from 16 September, no more than four in a day to early October; 21 bird-days, 7-30 October; highest day total five on 14 October; five bird-days after this date.
1990: before 23 October, 92 bird-days, highest day totals nine on 10th and 19 on 12 September. From 23 October, singles on 29 October and 8 November.

Blue-and-white Flycatcher Ficedula cyanomelana LT—not collected in northeast Hebei, but ‘it is, however, well-known and it is much valued as a cage-bird by the natives on account of its song.’ H—no records. COE—three birds, 5-21 May.
1986: a flycatcher at Se on 6 September was said to appear like an oversized Asian Brown Flycatcher; it seems likely to have been a female or juvenile of this species.
1987: one present during 1-5 October.
1989: an immature male was seen at LH on 5 November, a surprisingly late date.

Sooty Flycatcher (Siberian Flycatcher, Dark-sided Flycatcher) Muscicapa sibirica LT—common, August and early September. H—less common than in spring, 2 August to 13 September, though some records may refer to Grey-streaked Flycatchers. COE—34 bird-days, 14-28 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: fairly common.
1986: 19 bird-days, 20 August to 22 September. Fifteen were logged to 7 September, after which date the only records were of one on 20th and three on 22 September. About half the records were from LH; the rest were from coastal localities. See also Grey-streaked Flycatcher.
1987: 35 bird-days (five were recorded flying south), 26 August to 7 October; highest day totals four on 26th, seven (including four flying south) on 28th and six on 29 August; only seven bird-days (no more than two in a day) after 10 September.
1988 (Ho): three bird-days, 10-12 September.
1989: no records.
1990: 20 bird-days, highest day totals three on 24th and seven on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta LT—no records. H—one specimen is the only certain record. COE—11 bird-days, 7-22 May. Ch—migrant in Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: 16 bird-days, 20 August to 6 September; 15 or 16 individuals were involved. Seen on eight dates, with the highest count three birds on 27 August, 2nd and 4 September. It is possible that some were misidentified juvenile Sooty Flycatchers, which can appear heavily blotched, or streaked, below.
1987: two on 5th and one on 18 September.
1988 (Ho): one, 11 September.
1989: one on 16 September.
1990: five bird-days, highest day total two on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris LT—common, early August to about 8 September. Wilder (1924)—’On September 10 the Siberian blue chat [Siberian Blue Robin] was in the fields and on the grassy hillside among the small pines in thousands, and the brown flycatcher in almost equal numbers. The next morning the former but not the latter had all disappeared, and other forms had come in on the wings of a rainy northeaster.’ H—seen in many places, usually only a few in each place, 20 August to 12 September but suspected to the beginning of October. COE—180 bird-days, 1-31 May.
1986: 99 bird-days, 21 August to 26 September. The main passage was from 27 August to 15 September, when 81 bird-days were logged, and the highest day count—nine birds—was made on 11 September. Records were from all suitable wooded localities.
1987: 88 bird-days (two flew south), 20 August to 10 October; 70 bird-days from 20 August to 15 September; highest day totals five on 22nd, seven on 24 August and six on 5 September.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, beginning of the survey to 3 October.
1989: singles on 16th and 21 September.
1990: 61 bird-days, highest day totals nine on 24th and 13 on 29 August; all before 23 October.

Unidentified ‘brown’ flycatchers Muscicapa spp.
1987: 88 bird-days were logged for unidentified ‘brown’ flycatchers (Sooty, Grey-streaked or Asian Brown), beginning of the survey to 8 October; 60 were recorded flying south, some at considerable height (Hornskov 1989); highest day totals of birds flying south were ten on 28th and 31 August and 12 on 1 September.
1988 (Ho): one, 17 September.
1990: 53 bird-days, highest day total 13 on 24th and 31 August; most were flying south, and all before 23 October.

Asian Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi LT—last week of August until 23rd or 24 September. H—less common in autumn than in spring, 19 August to 16 September. COE—three birds, 8-24 May. Ch—breeds in Hebei.
1986: 11 bird-days (eight birds?), 24 August to 19 September. One on 24 August, one or two each day (five or more birds?) from 29 August to 2 September, singles at Se on 15th and 16th, and one at LH on 19 September.
1987: singles on 24 August and 2 September.
1988 (Ho): one bird seen on three dates from 13-18 September.
1989: no records.
1990: two were seen on 29 August.
[header=Tits]
Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus LT—probably resident in wooded parts. H—three birds in November 1943. COE—one A.c. caudatus, 30 April. Ch—A.c. vinaceus resident and winter visitor in Hebei, A.c. caudatus winter visitor to the province.
1986: 104 bird-days, 12 October to 16 November; all except 17 birds were seen at LH, often in flocks of 5-11 birds. There was a slight concentration of records during the last week of October and first week of November. Birds of the subspecies A.c. vinaceus and A.c. caudatus were seen, and several individuals showed intermediate characters.
1987: 122 bird-days, 6 September to 17 November; only 12 bird-days to 17 October, after which more regularly seen; highest day totals 12 on 21st, 14 on 25 October and 12 on 3 November.
1988 (Ho): 39 bird-days, 30 September to 14 November.
1989: 258 bird-days, 9 October to 12 November; highest day totals 25 on 14th and 41 on 16 October (birds seen well were all A.c. vinaceus).
1990: before 23 October, 167 bird-days (A.c. caudatus), highest day total 39 on 15 October. From 23 October, 241 bird-days (again all A.c. caudatus), throughout the period; highest day totals 30 on 23rd, 29 on 24th, 23 on 25th, 22 on 26 October and 19 on 15 November. These are the highest numbers of this race yet recorded at Beidaihe, perhaps suggesting an irruption (interestingly, one was seen in Hong Kong in late December—well south of the known range, and possibly an escape though it showed no signs of this: Picken 1991). The switch from all A.c. vinaceus in 1989 to all A.c. caudatus in 1990 is curious (the races are readily separable).
The species has been fairly common at Beidaihe in recent years, suggesting that the population has increased, perhaps as a result of mild winters. In each autumn, there was no evidence of strong passage through the area; the bird-day totals may be significantly higher than the numbers of birds seen.

Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz (pendulinus) consobrinus LT—not common; in autumn one on 25 October 1911, a flock 5th-7th or 8 October 1915 and a party on 16 October 1916. Wilder (1924)—two small flocks, 6-9 October 1923; ‘These were the first I had ever noticed wild, though I had bought them in the Peking market several times.’ H—once seen and twice probably heard in spring, two or three seen 26 October 1944. COE—just over 1000 bird-days, 28 April to 28 May. Ch—migrates though Hebei; uncommon in the north of China.
1986: 1292 bird-days, 24 September to 19 November. There was significant passage throughout October, with the main passage from 3rd-17th when 1051 bird-days were logged. Most passed south: 1026 were recorded from LH, including the highest day count, 530 birds on 15 October.
1987: 2570 bird-days, 24 September to 9 November; 2491 bird-days from 7-26 October, including 2158 birds recorded flying south; highest day total 1190 (1150 flew south) on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): 4187 bird-days, 30 September to 16 November; 2715 were recorded on 11 October, mainly/wholly passing south over TH; only 50 were recorded from LH on this day.
1989: first recorded on 6 October; 1577 bird-days (1431 flew south), 8 October to 16 November; 1448 bird-days over 12-19 October; highest totals 321 flying south on 12th and 707 flying south on 19 October.
1990: before 23 October, 245 bird-days, highest day total 130 on 13 October. From 23 October, 88 bird-days (60 were recorded flying south), 23 October to 5 November; highest day total 23 (all flying south) on 25 October.
As in spring 1985, the species was common to abundant at Beidaihe during the autumn surveys, rather than uncommon as previously reported. It thus seems that the population migrating through the area has substantially increased in recent years.

Marsh Tit Parus palustris LT—common in the interior to within a few miles of the port; resident. H—common resident.
A common resident throughout the area, not systematically recorded. Possibly an influx on 23 October 1989.

Coal Tit Parus ater LT—evidently travels down the coast, at least occasionally. H—four birds recorded, in December, February and April; probably also in January and March. COE—50 bird-days, 16 March to 13 April. Ch—resident and migrant in Hebei.
1986: 74 bird-days, 21 August to 17 November. The first record, of a single bird, was not followed until 16 October, after which records were more regular. The main period of occurrence was from 22 October to 4 November, when 54 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—nine birds—was made on 30 October. Nearly all the records were from LH.
1987: nine bird-days (no more than two in a day), 23 October to 7 November.
1988 (Ho): 80 bird-days, 2 October to the end of the survey; highest day total 12 on 3 November.
1989: no records.
1990: before 23 October, 105 bird-days, highest day totals 16 on 10th and 17 on 22 October. From 23 October, 118 bird-days, throughout the period; highest day totals 11 on 24th, ten on 25 October, 19 on 2nd and ten on 3 November; mainly recorded at LH. Relatively high numbers, perhaps indicating an irruption (cf. Long-tailed Tits of race caudatus).

Yellow-bellied Tit Parus venustulus LT, H—no records. COE—21 bird-days, 21 April to 19 May. Ch—resident Beijing Municipality, Hebei (midpart).
1986: 74 bird-days, 27 September to 20 November. Twenty bird-days were logged to mid-October and seven in the second half of the month. There were a further 11 bird-days during 1st-6th and 28 during 10-13 November, and another eight during the last five days of the survey; the highest day totals were ten on 9 October, 13 on 11th and 11 on 12 November. Over half the records were from LH; seven were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south.
1987: 377 bird-days, 1 September to the end of the survey; only three bird-days to 5 October; the highest day totals were 24 on 27 October, 15 on 7th, 17 on 13th, 16 on 15th, 21 on 20th and 16 on 22 November; on most days from late October to late November up to 15 were present around the Diplomatic Personnel Guest House.
1988 (Ho): at least 57 bird-days, 18 September to 3 November; highest day totals ten on 3rd and eight on 20 October.
1989: three on 6 October; 103 bird-days, 12 October to 16 November; highest day totals 14 on 6 November, and ten on 27 October and 7 November.
1990: before 23 October, 13 bird-days, highest day total eight on 4 October. From 23 October, singles were at LH on 24th and 29 October.
It seems surprising that this species had not been recorded at Beidaihe prior to spring 1985. Perhaps there has been a range expansion, with a migratory population now breeding to the north of the range given by Cheng.

Great Tit Parus major LT—common in inland wooded localities. Wilder (1925)—trees at Beidaihe ‘have developed so finely [that] Japanese titmice [= Great Tits] … now breed here regularly, whereas they were never seen years ago.’ H—seen more or less often all year round, though there may be a few more in spring and autumn.
A common resident throughout the area, not systematically recorded.
[header=Nuthatches, Wallcreeper and White-eyes]
•(NT)Chinese Nuthatch (Snowy-browed Nuthatch) Sitta villosa LT—’not uncommon in the Chien An district, but it appears to be rare in the vicinity of [Qinhuangdao]’; ‘half-a-dozen examples’ from Chien An and one from near Shanhaiguan. WH—abundant in summer, and fairly common in big pine groves near the hills. H, COE—no records.
1989: one was at LH on 16th, 25th and 26 October.

Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea LT—one shot in December 1914 in the mountains near Shanhaiguan, in locality where two others had been seen by a collector. Appears to be very rare in Hebei. WH—in Hebei, fairly common at the Eastern Tombs in oak woods. H, COE—no records.
1990: singles (same individual?) were at Study Gully on 7 October and at LH on six dates from 14 October to 9 November.

Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria LT—’found in winter on cliffs bordering the Shih Ho or Shanhaikuan River.’ WH—in Hebei, ‘Found in the mountains where cliffs and water come together, probably all year. … Rare, only one or two being seen on each of three long trips in suitable localities, when I was on the lookout for them. (W). At Kao I Hsien on rocky rounded waterless foothills in winter (H [= Hubbard]).’ H, COE—no records. Ch—breeding resident at the Eastern Tombs, winter and possible resident at the ‘eastern plains’ of Hebei.
1986: one was seen flying away from the LH watchpoint, towards the north, on 6 November.
1987: singles seen on 22 October (flying northeast) and 3 November (flying south).

Common Treecreeper Certhia familiaris LT—not uncommon in certain wooded localities a few miles north of Qinhuangdao. Also had specimen from the Shanhaiguan Mountains. H—one or two seen on ten occasions 4 December 1944 to 17 January 1945, and 23 March 1945 (was also seen at Nanking, where previously unrecorded, during the same winter). COE—no records.
1990: singles were at LH on 3rd and 9 November, and at ER on 4 November.

Chestnut-flanked White-eye Zosterops erythropleura LT—recorded on only five dates in autumn, 18 September to 2 October. WH—flock of 12 on 1st and one shot 4 October 1917. Wilder (1937)—’One morning, May 23, hundreds perhaps thousands poured through the trees in the compound at Lin-tsing [Shandong province]’; similar migration noted at Hsia-chan, Hebei, in October. H—in 1944, particularly abundant in large flocks, last part of September, when some were also seen coming from north or north-east at ER; maximum at same time in 1945. Twelve or thirteen dates in June, also noted in July—indicating breeding nearby? Latest autumn date 28 October. COE—1051 bird-days, 27 April to 28 May. Ch—breeds northeast Hebei; migrant also.
1986: 8601 bird-days, 20 August to 19 October. The main passage was from 13 September to 12 October, when 99 percent of the bird-days total was logged, and the highest day totals were 844 on 18th, 961 on 20th, 939 on 24th and 908 on 28 September. Most birds recorded were flying south, often in large, noisy parties: 5855 south-flying birds were recorded from LH; SF was another good locality for recording passing flocks.
1987: 6518 bird-days, 28 August to 26 October; 6003 were recorded flying south from 12 September to 16 October; highest day totals of birds flying south were 670 on 15th, 1925 on 20 September and 610 on 2 October.
1988 (Ho): 4085 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 12 October; 2325 were recorded from 22-26 September.
1988 (Earthwatch): a late bird was at Se on 14 November.
1989: recorded from 20 September, 400 flew south on 29 September; 602 bird-days (183 flew south), 8 October to 7 November, when highest day total 200 (100 flew south) on 13 October; the only record after 25 October was two birds on 7 November.
1990: 3445 bird-days, highest day totals 1645 on 22nd and 410 on 25 September (both totals are of birds recorded flying south); all before 23 October.

Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonica LT, H—no records. COE—two birds, 20 May. Ch—rarely encountered in Hebei; most northerly breeding area is in Shandong.
1986: eight birds were seen: one at Temple Beach on 26 September, three at Se from 10-16 October and four flying south over Se on 4 November. Also, three white-eyes thought to be this species were at TH on 25 October.
1987: 18 bird-days; seven on 24 September, heard flying south on 21st and ten flew south on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): one seen, 15 October.
1990: one seen on 25 August.
[header=Finches]
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus LT, H, COE—very common resident.
Widespread and abundant, not systematically recorded. In 1989, 23 were recorded flying south from 9 October to 5 November, and large flocks were 700 at SF on 10 October and 600 at Re on 5 November; flocks of similar size noted in autumns 1986-1988.

Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—’probably introduced’; most northerly occurrence given is Shanghai. Sowerby (1930)—commonest imported Chinese cage birds are the Canary and the Java Sparrow.
1986: one was at Se on 17th and 19 September.
It may well have been an escape from captivity, or may indicate a northward extension of the species’ range.

Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—gives only two sites for the species, with record(s) in winter in Xinjiang Uygur Aut. Reg., and a female at Shenyang, Liaoning Province, on 16 December 1963.
1990: one was at LH on 14 October.
Four individuals were seen at Beidaihe from 22 March to 10 April 1989, and a pair at the Old Summer Palace, Beijing, on 18 March 1989 (Palfery unpubl.).
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla LT—passes in October and November. H—common migrant, 25 September to 24 November. COE—in addition to flocks of 33,700, 5000 and over 1000, 2389 bird-days logged, 17 March to 18 May.
1986: 3411 bird-days, 17 September to 19 November. Numbers were low during the first three weeks of passage, but began to increase from around 10 October: 640 bird-days, 8th-14th and 447 from 15-21 October. The highest day count was 446 on 12 October, mostly recorded from LH, flying south. Numbers dropped for a few days after 21 October, then picked up again, with 711 bird-days logged from 29 October to 11 November. The last days of the survey saw the heaviest passage, with 1414 bird-days logged from 12-19 November and a high count of 368 flying south on 17th. Most records were from LH, where 2185 were recorded flying south.
1987: 6514 bird-days, 17 September to the end of the survey (5506 were recorded flying south); highest totals of birds flying south were 721 on 13th, 985 on 16th, 710 on 18th and 845 on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): at least 3240 bird-days, 20 September to the end of the survey; in November, flocks of up to ca. 600 were seen flying around LH, perhaps before going to roost.
1989: recorded from 28 September; 6396 bird-days (5811 flew south), 9 October to 14 November; 2020 flew south on 20th, and 3124 flew south and 200 were at Re on 27 October.
1990: before 23 October, 942 bird-days, highest day total 331 on 13 October. From 23 October, 625 bird-days (325 were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest counts of birds passing south 65 on 24 October, 175 on 2nd and 55 on 3 November; and of birds present 35 (at Re) on 23 October and 200 (at LH) on 15 November.

Oriental Greenfinch (Grey-capped Greenfinch) Carduelis sinica LT—common resident. H—common all year, though noticeably fewer in August and September. COE—quite common resident.
1986: 1276 bird-days, 24 August to 20 November. Like Hemmingsen, who suggested that the relative scarcity resulted from an interim period between the departure of local breeders and the arrival of winter visitors, we found the species rather uncommon in August and September: 35 bird-days (highest day total four, including a family of three) to 21 September, after which date numbers increased quite rapidly. The main passage was from 24 September to 7 October, when 493 bird-days were logged. Numbers declined in the second week of October, but increased in the third when 237 bird-days were logged. Passage subsequently declined, and only 24 bird-days were logged during the last week of the survey. The highest day totals were 66 (59 present, seven flying south) on 26 September, 92 (including 88 at Legation Gully) on 3rd, 75 (including 50 at Legation Gully) on 16th, 80 (including 20 at, and 50 recorded from LH, flying south) on 17 October; after 20 on 28 October, no more than 13 in a day. Most records were from LH; 307 birds were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south; Legation Gully was a favoured locality for birds present.
1987: 2516 bird-days, throughout the survey; 239 were recorded flying south during 25-31 August (including 155 on 25th), though mainly recorded from late September to mid-November, with 638 recorded flying south from 12 October to 2 November; highest day totals 197 (147 flying south, 50 present) on 13th, 110 (present) on 21st, 180 (flying south) on 30 October; after 65 (present) on 14 November, no more than 16 in a day, and only two records of singles after 21 November.
1988 (Ho): 273 bird-days, throughout the survey; 67 bird-days in September (highest day total 30 on 12th), 185 in October, and 24 in November.
1989: three on 26th and 28 September, 14 on 6th and ten on 7 October; 798 bird-days (446 flew south), 8 October to 14 November; 142 flew south from 26 October to 1 November and a flock of 250 flew south on 5 November; the highest count of birds present was 40 at LH on 28 October; after 5 November, numbers present did not exceed seven and only two were recorded flying south.
1990: before 23 October, 283 bird-days, highest day total 47 on 9 October. From 23 October, 194 bird-days (25 were recorded flying south); highest day totals were of birds at LH—20 on 24 October and 45 on 2 November (when 21 recorded flying south); no more than five at this locality after 4 November.

Eurasian Siskin Carduelis spinus LT—one record, 30 April. H—recorded in one year from 24 October to 1 November, though probably a flock also heard on 12 October. COE—818 bird-days, 22 March to 24 May.
1986: 675 bird-days, 1 October to 19 November. The first week of passage saw 21 bird-days logged; between 60 and 88 bird-days were logged in each of the subsequent three weeks. The main passage was during the remainder of the study, with 426 bird-days logged in the last three weeks. The highest day total was 62 on 14 November. Most records were from LH, where 228 were recorded flying south.
1987: 90 bird-days (37 were recorded flying south), 7 October to 22 November; only one bird seen to 24 October; highest day total 12 (ten flying south and two present) on 4th and 7 November.
1988 (Ho): at least 166 bird-days, 12 October to the end of the survey; all but 19 bird-days were logged in October.
1989: 63 bird-days (18 flew south), 11 October to 14 November; highest day total six on 20th and 24 October.
1990: before 23 October, 164 bird-days. From 23 October, 820 bird-days, throughout the period; total largely results from counts of flocks at LH (birds evidently lingering here), where highest totals 80 on 26th, 60 on 27 October, 57 on 1st, 60 on 7th and 100 on 9 November.

Common Redpoll (Mealy Redpoll) Acanthis flammea LT—common migrant, October and November, seen in winter. H—one record, 16 November 1942 (a few). COE—three on 2 May. Ch—migrant and winter visitor. Status: fairly common.
1986: 84 bird-days, 28 October to 18 November. The first record was of two at LH; 31 bird-days were logged in the week from 29 October and 24 in the following week; 27 bird-days were logged during the last nine days of passage. The highest day total was seven on 4th and 5 November. Most records were from LH, with 17 recorded flying south.
1987: two on 7 October, and singles on 20 October and 9 November.
1988 (Ho): 59 bird-days, 25 October to the end of the survey.
1989: no records.
1990: one was at LH on 24 October.
The records suggest the species is rather erratic in occurrence, and rare to uncommon, not a common migrant as reported by La Touche.

Rosy Finch (Rosy Mountain Finch) Leucosticte arctoa LT, H, COE—no records. Ch—breeds in far northeast of China, perhaps winters south to Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: on 18 October, two birds arrived from the north, landed briefly at the LH watchpoint, then flew off southwards.

Long-tailed Rosefinch Uragus sibiricus LT, H—no records. Sh—winter visitor to northern Hebei, November to April. COE—69 bird-days, beginning of survey to 18 April. Ch—resident and winter visitor in Hebei.
1986: three birds were seen at EG: a male on 17th and two females or immatures on 20 November.
1989: a female or immature was at Se and a male was at LP on 4 November and one was heard at Legation Gully on 9 November.
1990: singles were at ER on 4th and LH on 14 November.

Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus LT—no autumn records, but abundant in May. H—common in autumn, 19 August to 29 October. COE—107 bird-days, 20 March to 23 May.
1986: 582 bird-days, 10 September to 19 November. The main passage was from 12 September to 2 October, with 484 bird-days logged and high day counts of 99 on 13th and 86 on 24 September. After 7 October, only 59 bird-days were logged, with 16 in November, mostly in the first four days of the month. The great majority—552 birds—were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 1004 bird-days (933 were recorded flying south), 24 August to 11 November; 722 bird-days during 15-30 September; highest day total of birds flying south 262 on 15 September.
1988 (Ho): 659 bird-days, throughout the survey though none between 26 October and 16th and 17 November, when one was feeding on berries in Se gardens.
1989: one on 24 September; 34 bird-days (27 flew south), 11 October to 10 November; maximum of nine flying south on 27 October.
1990: before 23 October, 380 bird-days, highest day totals 123 on 15th, 51 on 18th and 31 on 28 September. From 23 October, 11 bird-days (four were recorded flying south), 25 October to 9 November; no more than two birds in a day.

Pallas’s Rosefinch Carpodacus roseus LT—a few, 9 October to 20 November. Winter visitor to northeast Hebei, but none seen at Qinhuangdao at this time. H—two records, both in March. COE—three birds, 27-28 March. Ch—winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: 84 bird-days, 29 October to 19 November. Seventeen bird-days, four dates to 7 November and from 8th until the end of our stay the species was noted on all but three days. The main passage was from 14-19 November, when 47 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—19 birds—was made on 15th. All except five birds were seen at LH; 43 were recorded passing south.
1987: 19 bird-days (seven were recorded flying south), 30 October to 13 November; highest day total four (flying south) on 11 November.
1988 (Ho): 23 bird-days, 24 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 14 bird-days, 29 October to 9 November; maximum of eight birds on 9 November.
1990: the only record before 23 October was one on 9 October. From 23 October, 19 bird-days (five were recorded flying south), 23 October to 15 November; highest day total four (three at LP, one at ER) on 4 November, after which only four bird-days.

Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra LT—apparently of irregular occurrence in northeast Hebei; three specimens procured 29 October 1911, reported as common in autumn 1915. H—of irregular occurrence, noted in two springs and one autumn over six migration seasons. In 1943, flock at LH on 12 October and from 16 October to 7 November heard and saw flock of 20-40 birds, daily or every second day. COE—no records.
1986: 213 bird-days, 18 October to 19 November. Ten birds were seen during the first week of passage. The period of main passage was from 26 October to 5 November, which saw 157 bird-days logged and the highest day count—62 birds—on 29 October. A further 27 bird-days, 7-10 November and 19 from 14-19 November. All were seen at LH, with 62 recorded flying south.
1987: one flew south on 2nd, three flew south and two were present on 5th and singles were present on 12th and 21 November.
1988 (Ho): 154 bird-days, 13 October to 14 November; up to 19 were seen almost daily around the LH watchpoint from 25 October to 4 November.
1989: 297 bird-days (74 flew south), 11 October to 11 November; 70 flew south on 27 October; highest count of birds present 29 on 19 October.
1990: before 23 October, 35 bird-days, highest day total 12 on 15 October. From 23 October, 121 bird-days, 24 October to 15 November; all were at LH, where maxima 40 on 25th and 30 on 26 October, and seen on seven dates to 6 November, after which the only records were three on 14th and six on 15th. Numbers were not unusual—so it did not seem there had been an irruption, in contrast to the large invasion noted in Britain at this time.

Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula LT, H—no records. WH—in Hebei, three specimens taken in winter at the Eastern Tombs. COE—two or three females and a male from 22 March to 25 April.
1990: one was at LH on 3 November.

Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes LT—common resident in northeast Hebei. H—seen frequently in all winter months, from November. COE—609 bird-days, from the beginning of the survey to 28 May.
1986: 1376 bird-days, 21 August to 20 November. Nine birds were seen to 28 August, and there were no further records until 7 October. The great majority passed from 22 October to the end of our stay—1330 bird-days were logged during this period. The highest day total was 241 on 29 October. Most records were from LH; 969 were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south.
1987: 622 bird-days; other than seven recorded flying south between 18th and 27 August, recorded from mid-October to the end of the survey; up to 60 or more were at LH daily from late October to the fourth week of November; 60 were recorded flying south.
1988 (Ho): 36 bird-days, 25 October to 16 November.
1989: one was at EG on 20 October and nine flew south from 27 October to 1 November.
1990: before 23 October, two bird-days. From 23 October, 205 bird-days (85 were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest numbers during 1-7 November, when 85 were recorded flying south and there were the highest counts of birds present—27 on 1st and 35 on 7th, after which the only records were singles at LH on 14th and Legation Gully on 16 November.

Chinese Grosbeak (Yellow-billed Grosbeak) Coccothraustes migratoria LT—apparently common in the Chien An district; only record from Qinhuangdao district was a male shot on 19 May 1914. H—recorded on five dates in three autumns, 26 August to 14 September. COE—176 bird-days, 12 April to 1 June. Ch—breeds in Hebei.
1986: 612 bird-days, 20 August to 4 October. The main passage was from 28 August to 7 September, when 491 bird-days were logged and there were high day counts of 112 on 6th and 189 on 7 September. Most records were from LH; 496 were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south.
1987: 694 bird-days (671 were recorded flying south), beginning of the survey to 27 September; 552 flew south from 22-31 August; highest day totals of birds flying south 143 on 23rd and 125 on 30 August.
1988 (Ho): at least 64 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 11 October; only one bird seen after 21 September.
1989: one was at EG on 9 October.
1990: 207 bird-days, highest day totals 31 on 21st, 27 on 22nd and 76 on 31 August; all before 23 October.

Japanese Grosbeak Coccothraustes personata LT—one autumn record, 12 November 1914. H—one seen in spring; other observers reported 10-20 in June 1945, of which Hemmingsen saw two caged in early July. COE—ten birds, 14-22 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei; possibly breeds at Eastern Tombs
1986: 60 bird-days, 7 October to 12 November. The main passage was during 9-15 October, when 37 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—11 birds—was made on 15th. Sixteen bird-days were logged in the second half of October and five during November. Most records were from LH; 31 were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south.
1987: 38 bird-days (31 were recorded flying south), 13 October to 3 November; highest day total 20 (18 flying south, two present) on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): singles recorded on 23rd and 26 October.
1989: two flew south on 12 October, and seven flew south from 27 October to 1 November.
1990: the only record was one on 15 October.
[header=Buntings]
Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephala LT—extremely common near Qinhuangdao in winter. H—common from the beginning of November, throughout the winter; usually in minor flocks of up to 15-20. COE—no records.
1986: 80 bird-days, 26 October to 17 November. Twenty-seven bird-days were logged during the last few days of October, 23 during 2nd-10th and 30 during 14-17 November. The highest counts were 17 on 14th and 10 on 15 November, all flying south. Most records were from LH; from the watchpoint, 72 were recorded flying south, and two flying north.
1987: 102 bird-days (75 were recorded flying south), 14 October to 24 November; highest day totals 18 (15 south, three present) on 21 October and 17 (ten south, seven present) on 5 November.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 6 October to 10 November.
1989: 60 bird-days, 5 October to 14 November; highest day totals were ten flying south on 7th and 19 at LH on 14 November.
1990: the only record before 23 October was three on 9 October. From 23 October, 12 bird-days (all but two were recorded flying south), 2-7 November; highest day total seven (all flying south) on 3 November.

Godlewski’s Rock-Bunting Emberiza (cia) omissa LT—resident in the mountains. H, COE—no records. Ch—range includes northeast Hebei.
1986: eight birds were recorded at LH; all except one flew south. There were singles on 31 October and 1 November, three on 3 November and singles on 12th, 13th and 15 November.
1987: nine bird-days (four were recorded flying south), 24 October to 8 November.
1988 (Ho): seven bird-days, 14-18 November; highest day total three on 17 November.
1989: 22 bird-days, 17 October to 14 November; all but three bird-days were logged at LH.
1990: no records.

Meadow Bunting Emberiza cioides LT—very common resident in the mountains, descends to plains in winter. H—recorded 10-20 birds, November to January. COE—several presumed winter visitors, and about five breeding pairs. Ch—resident in northeast Hebei.
1986: 170 bird-days, 25 August to 5 November. Initially seen in ones and twos, including juveniles, at LH and once on Lighthouse Point; these were considered to be local breeding birds. Two to four were seen on 19th and seven on 25 September, by which date the species had been recorded on 14 dates. Subsequently noted more regularly, presumably indicating either passage or the arrival of winter visitors, which had perhaps had bred in the mountains nearby; Hemmingsen notes that the species had never been observed on migration in Hebei. During October and November there was a minor build up in the numbers of bird-days logged, to a peak of 29 in the third week of October, with occasional birds observed from the watchpoint apparently migrating south (throughout the period, 20 birds were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south). Numbers declined again (19, 13 and five bird-days were logged in successive weeks) but there was a resurgence during the final week when 30 bird-days were logged, perhaps indicating the arrival of winter visitors. The highest day totals were seven on 20 October and 17 in 17 November. The great majority of records were from LH—20 were recorded from the watchpoint, flying south; also seen at Re and Lighthouse Point.
1987: 433 bird-days (77 were recorded flying south), beginning of the survey to 21 November; highest day totals of birds present 31 on 13th and 29 on 24 October; 43 flew south from 18 October to 4 November.
1988 (Ho): 100 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 9 November; highest day total ten on 9 October.
1989: at LH, two on 22nd and one on 24 September; 147 bird-days (17 flew south), 9 October to 14 November; highest day total 18 on 19 October (17 at LH, one at Se).
1990: before 23 October, 60 bird-days, highest day total nine on 10 October. From 23 October, 55 bird-days (two were recorded flying south), throughout the period; mainly recorded at LH, where highest counts five on 24 October and seven on 2 November.

•(NT)Japanese Reed-Bunting Emberiza yessoensis LT—a few seen from the beginning of October; latest date 17 November. H—six specimens, 22 November to 23 December. COE—21 birds, 3 April to 21 May.
1986: five birds were recorded: two males and two females/immatures at GS on 25 October and a male at Re on 1 November.
1987: 59 bird-days, 18 October to 25 November; 50 bird-days from 22 October to 2 November; highest day total ten on 23rd and 26 October.
1988 (Ho): five bird-days, 13-25 October.
1989: 70 bird-days, 9 October to 8 November; highest day total eight birds on 14 October and 3 November; 12 bird-days after 30 October.
1990: before 23 October, eight bird-days, highest day total six on 20 October. From 23 October, records at Re of one on 23rd, two on 25th and one on 31 October, and at FP, one on 4 November.

Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami LT—passes in spring; only one autumn record, 23 October. H—recorded on about 21 dates in spring, but only once in autumn, on 17 November. COE—68 bird-days, 1-31 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei; status: uncommon.
1986: 10-12 birds were recorded. Two were seen on 23rd and one on 28 September; five bird-days, 3rd-9th and a further four bird-days during 12-16 October.
1987: 48 bird-days; two on 5th and four (three flying south, one present) on 7 September, otherwise 6-28 October; highest day totals 14 on 10th and seven on 13 October.
1988 (Ho): 11 bird-days, 20 September to 12 October.
1989: 17 bird-days, 11-30 October; highest day total four birds on 29 October.
1990: singles were recorded on 15 September and 8 October.

Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata LT—passes commonly, first half of October. H—often recorded in spring, but only one certain autumn record, 12 October 1944, and a possible on 23 October 1944. COE—134 bird-days, 10 April to 31 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1986: 66 bird-days, 20 September to 10 October. Forty-eight bird-days were logged to 29 September, and the remaining 18 during 4-10 October. The highest day count was 15 on 21 September. Recorded at a variety of localities.
1987: 332 bird-days, 23 August to 27 October; 183 were recorded flying south from 16 September to 18 October; highest day totals 56 (44 flying south, 12 present) on 30 September, 41 (25 flying south, 16 present) on 2nd and 42 (41 flying south, one present) on 3 October. In retrospect, almost certain that at least 200 flew south during two days of heavy bunting passage in late August (Hornskov unpubl.).
1988 (Ho): at least 2620 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 17 October; ca. 424 and ca. 2100 were recorded flying south on 20th and 21 September, respectively (appearing ‘pot-bellied, with a curiously rounded head … call reminiscent of Corn Bunting E. calandra soft blep’ as well as zick similar to other buntings).
1989: two on 26 September; 15 bird-days, 9-30 October; highest day total nine birds on 14 October.
1990: before 23 October, 61 bird-days, highest day totals ten on 22nd, 11 on 27 September and nine on 3 October. From 23 October, records at Re of one on 23rd and two on 25 October.

Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla LT—occurs in October and November. H—less common in autumn than in spring, 28 September to 1 November. COE—3009 bird-days, 28 March to 20 May.
1986: 125 bird-days, 11 September to 19 November. Numbers built up gradually, with nine bird-days logged during September, 23 during the first half of October and 47 during the second half of the month; 15 on 1 November proved to be the only record until 29 on 17th—the highest day count. The last record was two birds on 19 November. Records were from a number of localities, with 36 noted from LH, flying south.
1987: 2787 bird-days, 15 September to the end of the survey; 1198 were recorded flying south, including 1012 during 16-31 October. Much of the difference between the 1986 and 1987 tallies for this species (and for Rustic Bunting) may be accounted for by the more confident identification of flying buntings in 1987 (especially birds flying around LH at dusk: see ‘unidentified buntings’). The highest day totals were 214 (138 flew south) on 20th and 245 (225 flew south) on 22 October.
1988 (Ho): 305 bird-days, 19 September to the end of the survey; highest day totals 91 on 5th and 60 on 9 October.
1989: recorded from 17 September, typically one to seven in a day until early October; 324 bird-days, 7 October to 10 November; highest day totals 35 on 11th, 43 on 13th and 33 on 25 October.
1990: before 23 October, 133 bird-days. From 23 October, 72 bird-days (three were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals 17 (15 at Re, two flying south) on 23 October and 15 (seven at ER, eight at TH) on 4 November, after which day totals did not exceed three.

Yellow-browed Bunting Emberiza chrysophrys LT—no records. WH—no autumn records listed for Beidaihe, but in Hebei not very common from 10 October to 20 November. H—not infrequent in spring, but only once in autumn, 1 September. COE—11 birds, 28 April to 22 May.
1986: 43 bird-days, 10 September to 10 November. Only three birds were recorded to 23 September, but from this date to 29 September 18 bird-days were logged, making this the main passage period, and the highest day count—six birds—was made on 23rd. From 4-16 October a further 20 bird-days were logged; after this period there were three on 25th October, and two on 4th and one on 10 November. Re and Grassy Sands were the favoured localities.
1987: 94 bird-days (13 were recorded flying south), 3 September to 8 November; highest day total ten (present) on 29 September; only one bird in November.
1988 (Ho): nine bird-days, 12 September to 2 October.
1989: 44 bird-days, 9 October to 2 November; highest day total eight on 27 October.
1990: nine bird-days, highest day total two on 8 October; all before 23 October.

Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica LT—passes in autumn; many winter. WH—in Hebei, ‘Common winter visitor in sheltered places and migrant on the plain in March and apparently in November. H—only identified on three autumn dates; one winter record. COE—281 bird-days from the beginning of the survey to 19 April.
1986: 269 bird-days, 30 September to 20 November. Fifteen bird-days were logged to 18 October, and 40 over the following two days. The main passage was over the three-day period 30 October to 1 November, when 113 bird-days were logged and the highest day count—59 birds—was made on 31 October. There was a further pulse of birds over 16-17 November, when 48 bird-days were logged, but there was little evidence that a wintering population had become established by the end of the survey. The pattern of occurrence of this species was perhaps the most irregular of the buntings, with birds seen on only 18 dates.
1987: 2930 bird-days (1714 were recorded flying south), 27 September to 24 November; highest day totals of birds flying south 750 on 7th and 550 on 11 November. As with the Little Bunting, much of the difference between the 1986 and 1987 tallies may be accounted for by the more confident identification of buntings in flight, especially towards dusk at LH, in 1987.
1988 (Ho): 279 bird-days, 5 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 2557 bird-days (including 60 flying south and 300 buntings which were probably this species flying south on 27 October), 9 October to 9 November; 2145 bird-days over 24-30 October; highest day totals 602 (including 300 buntings believed to be this species flying south, 200 at Re) on 27th, 714 (including 650 at Re) on 30 October.
1990: before 23 October, 38 bird-days. From 23 October, 310 bird-days (three were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals at least 150 (all at Re) on 23 October and 75 (at LH) on 2 November; only four records after 4 November, of one or two birds except 30 at Re on 16th.

Little Bunting/Rustic Bunting Emberiza pusilla/E. rustica
1987: 1486 bird-days; 1410 were recorded flying south in the first three weeks of November.

Yellow-throated Bunting Emberiza elegans LT—occurs in autumn, and probably winters in sheltered localities. H—numerous in spring but, ‘Like other buntings … much less common at PTH [Beidaihe] in autumn than in spring.’; 19 September to 11 November. COE—920 bird-days, 17 March to 19 May.
1986: 275 bird-days, 8 October to 20 November. Seventy-two bird-days were logged before 30 October, and 76 during 30 October to 1 November. There were no records over the next seven days, and 33 bird-days, 9-13 November. The highest day count was 76 on 17 November. LH, Re and YH were the favoured localities.
1987: 520 bird-days (18 were recorded flying south), 13 September to the end of the survey; the first record was not followed until 27 September; 309 bird-days, 21-29 October; highest day totals 37 on 26th and 64 on 27 October.
1988 (Ho): 94 bird-days, 2 October to the end of the survey; highest day total 15 on 22 October.
1989: three on 6 October; 1427 bird-days (including 150 birds which were probably this species flying south on 27 October), throughout the survey; 1016 bird-days over 23-30 October; highest day total 440 on 27 October (including 150 flying south and 150 at LH); only six bird-days to 16 October.
1990: 168 bird-days, 24 October to 16 November; highest day total 36 (two at ER, nine at Re, ten at EG and 15 at LH) on 31 October.

Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola LT—extremely abundant from the beginning of August and in September, ‘when it swarms in the crops’; a few occur at the beginning of October. H—though in spring sometimes seen in flocks of 20-40 or more, in autumn ‘only a few were seen each time’, 4 August to 2 September, with one also seen on 16 November. COE—252 bird-days, 28 April to the end of the survey.
1986: 91 bird-days, 20 August to 10 October. Recorded on six dates to the middle of September, with two to six birds each day apart from 31 August, when 31 birds—the highest day count—were seen. Nineteen bird-days were logged during 19-26 September and 14 during 3-7 October. The next and last record was of one on 10 October. Seen at a variety of localities; 59 were recorded from LH, flying south.
1987: 2274 bird-days (2042 were recorded flying south), beginning of the survey to 21 October; 1533 were recorded flying south during 25-31 August, including 708 on 28th and 681 on 29th; outside this period the highest counts of birds passing south were 65 on 18th, 67 on 26 September and 85 on 8 October; highest day totals of birds present were 40 on 30 August and 33 on 4 October.
1988 (Ho): 167 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 4 November; only three were recorded after the first week of October.
1989: two were seen on 9th, 14th and 29 October, and one on 2 November.
1990: 980 bird-days, highest day totals at least 300 flying south on 29 August and 240 on 22 September; all before 23 October.

Chestnut Bunting Emberiza rutila LT—two obtained 24 September. H—no certain records in autumn. COE—131 bird-days, 9-21 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei (southern plain).
1986: 29 bird-days, 28 September to 16 October; it seems likely that about 23 individuals were involved. One bird on 28 September was followed by four over 3-4 October. The remainder of the records were from 8-16 October, which was the main passage period, with the highest day total of four recorded on five dates. Half the records were from LH.
1987: 107 bird-days (58 were recorded flying south), 7 September to 27 October; highest day totals 14 flying south on 12th, 12 flying south on 20 September, 11 present on 8th and ten present on 9 October.
1988 (Ho): 93 bird-days, 16 September to 15 October; 57 bird-days were logged during the first week of October, and 13 were seen on 12 October.
1989: one on 16 September; 31 bird-days, 11 October to 1 November; four birds were seen on each day during 26-29 October.
1990: 30 bird-days, highest day total 15 on 28 September; all before 23 October.

Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala LT—occurs commonly in September and October. H—not uncommon, records usually of one or two birds (more numerous in spring), 9 August to 16 October. COE—351 bird-days, 8 April to the end of the survey period; possibly bred.
1986: 1174 bird-days (only birds present were recorded), 15 September to 31 October. Passage was quite heavily concentrated into the three-week period 24 September to 14 October, when 1078 bird-days were logged. The largest numbers occurred at Re, including 200 on 28 September (in all, 209 were recorded on this date—the highest day total).
1987: 3453 bird-days (2603 were recorded flying south), 25 August to 9 November; highest day totals of birds flying south were 1210 on 20th, 500 on 21st and 245 on 30 September, and of birds present 75 on 27 September, 110 on 2nd and 70 on 13 October (at least 6000 south-flying buntings on 20 September, the best day of passage, were thought to be this species).
1988 (Ho): at least 3015 bird-days, 12 September to 25 October; 2425 were recorded between 22 September and 1 October, mostly flying south.
1989: recorded from 16 September; 265 bird-days, 8 October to 8 November; 158 bird-days over 10-14 October; highest day total 55 on 12 October.
1990: before 23 October, 457 bird-days, highest day totals 80 on 18th and 105 on 28 September. From 23 October, singles were at Re on 23 October and LH on 2 November.
Pallas’s Reed-Bunting Emberiza pallasi LT—abundant in October; apparently winters. H—three autumn records, 21 October to 12 November; probably under-recorded. COE—recorded from the beginning of the survey to 21 May. Initially, winter visitors at Re; passage birds more widespread.
1986: 931 bird-days, 29 September to 19 November. The main passage was from 30 October to 1 November, when 520 bird-days were logged, and at least 300 were seen at Re on 30 October; 104 bird-days, 23-25 October. Re was the favoured locality. Nineteen were recorded from LH, flying south. This was one of four species of bunting which arrived in numbers on 30 October (others were Little, Rustic, and Yellow-throated), with good numbers remaining to 1 November.
1987: 2417 bird-days (353 were recorded flying south), 20 September to the end of the survey; 1356 bird-days were logged for birds present (mainly at Re) from 17 October to 9 November; highest day totals of birds present 115 on 20th, 240 on 27 October, 140 on 9th and 125 on 24 November.
1988 (Ho): 925 bird-days, 21 September to the end of the survey.
1989: two on 25 September; 1400 bird-days, 6 October to 16 November; 94 bird-days over 13-14 October; 1167 bird-days from 24 October to 3 November; highest day total 285 on 24 October.
1990: before 23 October, 156 bird-days. From 23 October, 198 bird-days (26 were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals 32 (30 at Re, two at ER) on 23rd and 26 (24 at Re, two flying south) on 31 October.

Common Reed-Bunting Emberiza schoeniculus LT, H—no autumn records. COE—about 16 birds, 25 March to 12 May. Ch—migrates through Hebei.
1986: 34 bird-days, 17 September to 9 November. Recorded on 17 dates; it appears that 28-32 individuals were involved. Eighteen bird-days had been logged by the end of September; a further 11 were logged in the first half of October and three during the rest of the month. Nearly all the records were from Re.
1987: 35 bird-days (17 were recorded flying south), 22 September to 1 November; highest day total four (flying south) on 6th and 21 October.
1988 (Ho): 35 bird-days, 30 September to the end of the survey; all were recorded flying south.
1989: 25 bird-days, 8 October to 1 November; highest day total eight on 10 October.
1990: before 23 October, 26 bird-days, highest day totals six on 28th, three on 29 September and four on 3 October. From 23 October, singles were at Re on 25 October and SF on 4 November.

Lapland Bunting (Lapland Longspur) Calcarius lapponicus LT—appears in numbers in late autumn and occurs on the plain in late winter and early spring in immense flocks. H—in numbers in winter, e.g. ‘large flocks of hundreds flying about GS [Grassy Sands]’ 16th and 18 November 1944; earliest autumn date 22 October. COE—no records. Ch—migrant and winter visitor to Hebei.
1986: 54 bird-days, 20 October to 18 November. Four were recorded before 30 October, from which date to 1 November nine bird-days were logged. The highest day count was 17, recorded from LH, flying south, on 7 November, and there was a flurry of records, totalling 18 bird-days, from 14-18 November. Twenty-seven birds were recorded flying south, at LH or SF.
1987: 92 bird-days (88 were recorded flying south), 13 October to 24 November; highest day totals 19 on 23rd and 28 October; only one bird after 7 November.
1988 (Ho): eight bird-days, 18 October to the end of the survey.
1989: 199 bird-days, 19 October to 16 November (65 flew south); 56 flew south over 31 October and 1 November; 100 were at YH on 16 November.
1990: the only record before 23 October was two on 18 October. From 23 October, 41 bird-days (28 were recorded flying south), throughout the period; highest day totals eight flying south on 8th and 11 at YH on 15 November.
This species has not been abundant in recent years, in contrast to the observations of La Touche and Hemmingsen. This may be because recent winters have been relatively mild.

Unidentified buntings Emberiza spp.
1986: 4946 unidentified buntings were recorded from 21 August to 19 November, mostly during October and the first ten days of November. Records were mainly of birds flying south during the first few hours after dawn, or flying around before dusk (about to go to roost, or begin migrating?), at LH.
1987: 6516 bird-days, beginning of the survey to 8 November; 5955 were recorded flying south.

Unidentified small passerines Passeriformes
1986: 49,653 unidentified small passerines were recorded flying south from 23 August to 19 November. It seems likely that more than half were buntings, pipits and Yellow Wagtails, which were seen passing in some numbers and are less distinctive at a distance than, say, larks. The peak count was 8822 on 13 September, marking the beginning of a 12-day period during which 20,816 were recorded flying south. Most records were from LH.
Typically the great majority of the unidentified small passerines were logged in the first two or three hours after dawn, when streams of passerines were sometimes seen heading south over the plain. Especially later in the period, numbers were recorded at dusk—buntings were well-represented in these dusk movements.

 

 

Martin